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Showing 13 results for zare

Sadeghi D (msc), Mosavari N (phd), Rafiee B (msc), Mohamad Taheri M (msc), Dashtipour Sh (bsc), Zare A (phd), Ghahremanlo E (msc), Tebyanian M (phd),
Volume 6, Issue 1 (spring-summer[PERSIAN] 2012)

Abstract Background and objectives: Tuberculin is the proteins existed in tuberculosis culture medium which precipitated by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or ammonium sulfate. Tuberculin is used for diagnosis of Tuberculosis. The aim of this study is to compare the human tuberculin produced by Razi Institute and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Culture Filtrate Protein. Material and Methods: Initially By biphasic medium, Bacteria from Lowenstein–Jensen solid medium was transferred to a Dorset−Henley Liquid medium. After 6 weeks of growth, the bacteria were isolated from liquid medium containing secretory proteins by the 0, 22 micron filter and the solution containing secretory proteins was precipitated by TCA and ammonium sulfate, separately. Then, using spectrophotometer and kjeldahl protein assay, the presence of protein in solution was confirmed. At the end, the precipitated proteins are compared with the human tuberculin by Coomassie-Blue stained SDS-PAGE Results: The protein samples precipitated by TCA have more bands in the limit of higher than 20 kDa, but the protein samples by ammonium sulfate have more bands in the limit of less than 20 kDa. Human tuberculin proteins are like smear and their weight is less than 16 kDa. Conclusion: It seems that ammonium sulfate is more suitable for low molecular weight proteins than TCA for precipitation. Key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, SDS-PAGE, tuberculin
H Ansarinia, F Zare, H Hadinedoushan,
Volume 7, Issue 5 (supplement Issue( Bacteriology)[PERSIAN] 2014)

Abstract Background and Objective: In our country, the Wright test routinely is used for diagnosing brucellosis. Because of its low sensitivity, the range of false-negative results is high. Therefore, we aimed at comparing Wright and ELISA in the people suspected brucellosis. Material and Methods: The results of Wright, 2ME, Coombs Wright tests were compared with Anti-Brucella IgG, Anti-Brucella IgM. Of 1183 subjects referred for Wright test, 148 of them were investigated for Coombs Wright and 228 for 2ME Wright. In addition to Wright test for 32 cases, Brucella IgG and IgM classes were also experimented. Results: Wright test was negative in 95.4% of cases. Of these negative results, 2.3% were positive for Coombs Wright. Eight-point-five percent of the cases were positive for Coombs Wright test and 4.7% for 2ME Wright test. Sixteen cases were negative for both Wright and ELISA. In 8 cases of Wright-negative, ELISA IgM class was positive and IgG class was negative, and in 4 cases of Wright-negative, ELISA IgM was negative and IgG was positive. About 4 cases of Wright-positive, IgM and IgG antibody classes were positive. Conclusion: Due to the mismatch between the results of Wright agglutination test and ELISA method and with regard to availability, high sensitivity and determining the type of antibody classes in ELISA, it is focused on ELISA method for brucellosis diagnosis. Keywords: Brucellosis Wright ELISA
M Rezaei, R Ghasemi Khah, M Parviz, O Zarei,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (summer 2014[PERSIAN] 2014)

Abstract Background and Objective: Ice cream is a suitable environment for microbial growth due to its chemical structure, ingredients, and its increased supply and demand. In the absence of hygienic considerations, it can cause poisoning. This study aimed to determine bacterial contamination in traditional ice cream produced in Arak city in 2011. Material and Methods: The samples (n= 30) were randomly obtained from different parts of Arak in, 2011. The Samples were shipped in cold conditions and total count of microorganisms test was performed according to Iranian national standards. Results: In 16.66%, the microbial contamination was below the limit of microbial load (5×104), and in 83.3% the contamination was more than allowed level. Conclusion: This study highlights the dire situation for bacterial contamination of traditional ice cream in Arak city. Keywords: Arak, Ice Cream, Microbial Contamination
Zare, Z, Solhjoo, K, Norooznejad, Mj, Kazemi, A,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (supplement Issue[PERSIAN] 2015)

Abstract Background and Objective: Increasing prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA) with their multidrug resistance potential causes difficulties in the treatment of infections due to these bacteria. Hence, the detection and determination of the frequency of MRSA strains via phenotypical and molecular methods is necessary in different parts of the county. Material and Methods: In this cross- sectional study, 150 Staphylococcus aureus strains were collected from different clinical samples in the hospitals located in Shiraz and Jahrom, Iran. To detect methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, we used phenotypical methods such as disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration by E-Test, and PCR molecular method for mass gene. Results: The frequency of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 63 strains (42%) using disc diffusion and E-Test. while in PCR method, in addition to 63 strains, nine other isolates, which were sensitive to oxacillin by disc diffusion and E-Test, possessed also mecA gene. By and large, 72 isolates (48%) had methicillin resistance gene. Conclusion: Given the results of phenotypical and molecular methods, the frequency of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was relatively high in this area. Thus, the MRSA strains can be detectable as soon as possible by accurate and sensitive methods such as PCR to determinate the effective antibiotics. Keywords: Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, MRSA, MecA Gene, PCR
Ebrahim Zade, A, Zare Bidaki, M, Saber Hosseini, Sn, Gh Shariatzadeh, Derayati, Z,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (supplement Issue[PERSIAN] 2015)

Abstract Background and Objective: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of acquired bacterial infections in the respiratory system. In recent years, a high incidence of pneumococcal resistance to different antibiotics has also been appeared. This study was conducted to evaluate the in vivo and in vitro resistance of pneumococcal pneumonia to ceftriaxone, azithromycin and co-amoxiclave in clinical setting and laboratory. Material and Methods: In this single-blind clinical trial study, the participants were the patients with the diagnosis of pneumonia referred to infectious diseases clinic in Vali-e-Asr hospital of Birjand university of Medical Sciences, October 2012 - April 2014. The patients were randomly allocated to one of the three therapeutic regimes including azithromycin, ceftriaxone, and co-amoxiclave. After 48-72 hours that the infection was confirmed by paraclinical findings, the patients with pneumococcal pneumonia remained in the study and their in vivo and in vitro resistance to the above mentioned antibiotics were compared. Results: The most in vitro drug resistance was to co-amoxiclave (41.5%) and the least to ceftriaxone (20.8%) (P>0.05). For In vivo, the most resistance was to azithromycin (47.4%) and the least one to ceftriaxone (6.7%) (p<0.05). The agreement coefficient between the laboratory antibiogram test and the clinical responses to therapeutic regimes of azithromycin, co-amoxiclave and ceftriaxone was 0.25 (p=0.26), 0.46 (p=0.02) and 0.44 (p=0.04), respectively. Conclusion: With regard to the demographic characteristics of the patients in this study, the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to ceftriaxone is less than that of co-amoxiclave and azithromycin in both clinical setting and laboratory. Keywords: Drug Resistance, Streptococcus Pneumonia, Azithromycin, Ceftriaxone, Co-Amoxiclave

Zare, M, Karimi Akhormeh, A, Takhshid, Ma,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (may,jun 2015[PERSIAN] 2015)


Background and Objective: Prevention of medical laboratory errors is a major goal of quality control programs. Hemolyzed specimen is one of the common issues causing medical laboratory errors. Apart from the visual assessment, the measurement of serum hemoglobin concentration can be another method to evaluate the intensity of hemolysis. We aimed to assess hemolyzed serum specimens using two quantitative and qualitative methods.

Material and Methods: the serum samples (n=890) were evaluated for the presence and degree of hemolysis, using quantitative and qualitative methods. In qualitative method, the samples were investigated visually and in quantitative with the measurement of serum free hemoglobin concentration. Furthermore, the relative frequency of hemolyzed specimens was calculated.

 Results: the hemolyzed samples were 23.4 % in qualitative and 65.8% in quantitative method.  In quantitative, 71.2% of the specimens had mild hemolysis (sfHB<50 mg/dL), 26.8% intermediate (50mg/dL< sfHB <250mg/dL), and 2% high (sfHB >250 mg/dL). The percentage of hemolyzed specimens was higher in intensive care unit than those of other departments (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: given that hemolysis in small amount is not detectable visually, we recommend using quantitative method for evaluating hemolyzed specimens.

Keywords: Hemolysis, Diagnostic Errors, Qualitative Research, Quantitative Research

Kargar, M, Kargar, M, Zareian Jahromi, M,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (Jul,Aug2015[PERSIAN] 2015)


Background and Objective: Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one of the most well-known pathogenic bacteria worldwide that can develop severe diseases such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). This study aimed to assess the prevalence of virulence genes of E. coli O157:H7 in patients with suspected urinary tract infections (UTIs).

Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 10,372 urine samples collected from patients with suspected UTI from six hospitals and clinical laboratories in Shiraz city. CT-SMAC medium, b-glucosidase activity test (MUG), specific antiserum, and the presence of O157 and H7 genes by PCR were used to confirm E. coli O157:H7 isolates. Then, stx1, stx2, eaeA, and hlyA genes were evaluated using multiplex PCR.

Results: In this study, 16 (7.8%) and 13 (6.3%) bacteria had O157 and H7 genes, respectively. Evaluation of virulence genes showed that genes eaeA (15.4%), stx1 and eaeA (15.4%), stx2 (7.7%), and stx2 and eaeA (7.7%) had the highest frequency in E. coli O157:H7.

Conclusion: Due to the severity of pathogenicity, low infectious dose of E. coli O157: H7, and its pathogenic genes, more extensive studies and genotyping of E. coli O157: H7 are required to be conducted in other areas of Iran in order to measure the frequency in UTIs and control the infections caused by E. coli O157: H7.

Keywords: Escherichia coli O157:H7; Urinary Tract Infections; Shiga Toxin 1; Shiga Toxin 2.

Hashemi, M, Amin Zare, M, Naghibi, S, Raeisi, M, Hasanzad Azar, H,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (Jul,Aug2015[PERSIAN] 2015)


Background and Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal effect and antioxidant property of Salvia officinalis, Mentha piperita and Mentha Longifolia.

Material and Methods: At first, chemical analysis of essential oils was determined using GC/MS. Then the antibacterial and antifungal effect of tested essential oils on L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, S. typhimurium and E. coli and two fungal strains including A. niger and A. flavus were determined using disk diffusion agar and broth microdilution methods.  The antioxidant property of essential oils was evaluated using DPPH assay.

Results: Linalool (14.38%), l. menthone (19.03%) and δ-terpinene (21.78%) were the major components of Salvia officinalis, Mentha piperita and Mentha Longifolia, respectively. all tested essential oils had antibacterial effect on foodborne pathogens, which was comparable with tetracycline’s effect. In addition, all essences had appropriate antioxidant potential compared with BHT.

Conclusion: based on the results, Salvia officinalis, Mentha piperita and Mentha Longifolia can be introduced as appropriate natural preservatives.

Keywords: Salvia officinalis; Mentha piperita; Mentha Longifolia, Antibacterial Agents.

Hossein Naghili, Hossein Tajik, Mojtaba Raeisi, Hadi Ghasem Mahdi , Mehran Moradi, Majid Amin Zare, Touraj Mehdizadeh, Hasan Hasanzadazar , Fardin Hariri,
Volume 10, Issue 6 (Nov-Dec-2016 2016)


          Background and Objective: Several studies have

shown the antimicrobial activity of lactobacilli against Salmonella enterica (serotype typhimurium). The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of metabolites produced by probiotic culture of Lactobacillus casei against S. typhimurium and its impact on S. typhimurium motility and biofilm formation.

         Methods: In order to evaluate the impact of the metabolites, L. casei cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) was collected by centrifugation of L. casei secondary cultures. Effectiveness of the CFCS against Salmonella was evaluated by the well-diffusion method. In addition, in vitro effect of this treatment on motility in Swarm agar and biofilm formation by the bacteria was investigated.

         Results: Inhibition zone diameters of S. typhimurium were 0.83 and 12.1 mm at concentrations of 50 and 100 μl of Lactobacillus CFCS against the log4 of S. typhimurium, respectively. Moreover, CFCS treatment inhibited the motility and biofilm formation by Salmonella. Concentrations of 5% and 10% were determined as the minimum inhibitory concentrations for motility and biofilm formation by S. typhimurium. Furthermore, effectiveness of the CFCS against Salmonella was dose-dependent (P<0.05).

         Conclusion: L. casei CFCS is able to inhibit the growth, motility and biofilm formation in S. typhimurium.

         Keywords: Anti-Bacterial, Lactobacillus Casei Metabolites, Phenotypic Characteristics of S. typhimurium

Kazem Maftuni , Peyman Zare ,
Volume 11, Issue 5 (Sep - Oct 2017)

           Background and objective: Considering the toxic side effects of chemotherapy in treatment of cancer, anticancer drugs of natural origin including probiotic Lactobacillus strains have recently attracted a lot of attention.
Methods: After culturing chronic myeloid leukemia cell line K562 in 96-well plates, effects of different concentrations of culture supernatant from Lactobacillus casei on differentiation of the cells were investigated after 48 and 72 hours under an inverted microscope. Number of live cells and percentage of viable cells were determined by trypan blue exclusion test of cell viability. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay. Data analysis was performed by SPSS (version) 22 using one-way analysis of variance and Tukeychr('39')s test at significance level of 0.05.
          Results: Secondary metabolites from the probiotic bacteria L. casei induced cellular differentiation, exerted anti-cancer effects and inhibited growth in K562 cells. Apoptotic cell death was confirmed by MTT and DNA fragmentation assays in a way that increasing the dilution from 1.2 to 1.32 significantly increased the viability of cells (P=0.001). In addition, increasing the dilution significantly increased the number of live cells in the first 48 hours (P=0.001).
        Conclusion: Culture supernatant of L. casei reduces the number of live cells, and induces apoptosis and monocytic differentiation in K562 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Therefore, combined chemotherapy and differentiation therapy using such supernatants could be useful for treatment of cancer.
        Keywords: Cell differentiation, K562 cell line, Probiotic, Lactobacillus casei.
Mojtaba Zare Ebrahimabad , Hanieh Teymoori, Hamidreza Joshaghani,
Volume 13, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2019)

            Background and Objectives: Vitamin D is an essential secosteroid that plays a crucial role in the homeostasis of a few mineral elements, particularly calcium. Since vitamin D deficiency and thyroid diseases are two important global health problems, we aimed to investigate a possible relationship of vitamin D and calcium levels with hypothyroidism in an Iranian population.
            Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 175 subjects with hypothyroidism (75 males and 100 females) and 175 euthyroid controls (85 males and 90 females) who were referred to a laboratory in Gorgan, Iran. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (free T3) and thyroxine (total T4) were measured in all participants.
            Results: Vitamin D and calcium were significantly lower in patients with hypothyroidism (P<0.0001). Free T3 and calcium levels differed significantly among hypothyroid patients based on their vitamin D status (P<0.0001), but vitamin D levels were within sufficient range in all groups. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between free T3 with vitamin D (r= 0.337, P<0.0001) and calcium (r= 0.361, P<0.0001) levels.
            Conclusions: Our results suggest that there may be a relationship between decreased vitamin D levels and thyroid function parameters.
            Keywords: Vitamin D Deficiency, Hypocalcemia, Hypothyroidism, Thyrotropin, Thyroxine.

Mana Zakeri, Amir Hosein Babaei, Mohamad Taghi Akbari, Shohreh Zare, Faravar Khordadpoor,
Volume 14, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2020)

Background and objective:  Huntingtonchr('39')s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disorder that mainly affects adults. Although mutations in the IT15 gene have been known as the main cause of the disease, patients with HD like (HDL) syndrome have mutations in genes other than the IT15 gene.  In this study, we investigate the frequency of mutations in SCA17/TBP, JPH3 and PRNP genes in patients with HDL syndrome.
      Methods: The frequency of mutations in SCA17/TBP, JPH3 and PRNP genes was studied in 56 patients with HDL phenotype but without trinucleotide expansion in the IT15 gene. DNA was extracted from peripheral whole blood by the salting out method. PCR was performed using specific primers for each gene. PCR products were separated on polyacrylamide gel. Sequencing was performed on some samples to confirm the PCR results.
      Results: We found neither trinucleotide expansion in the JPH3 and SCA17, nor octapeptide insertion in the PRNP gene.
      Conclusion: Based on the results, Iranian patients with HDL syndrome do not have mutation in the TBP, JPH3 and PRNP genes. However, this result may be due to population differences, rarity of the mutations in the studied genes and the small number of study subjects. Therefore, studies with a larger study population that investigate other mutations, such as point mutations in the mentioned genes may help clarify the exact cause of HDL phenotype in Iranian patients.

Zahra Kiani, Pouria Mohammad Parast Tabas, Khashayar Khalilpour, Mahjoube Goldani Moghadam, Majid Zare_bidaki,
Volume 15, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct (In Press) 2021)

Background and objectives: Medicinal plants have long been considered as one of the most important pillars of traditional medicine. Existing challenges in the treatment of diseases, particularly infectious diseases, are major drivers for herbal medicine studies. Tribulus terrestris has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. This study aimed to investigate in vitro antibacterial effect of the aqueous extract of T. terrestris on several oral bacteria.

Methods: In this experimental study, after preparing the aqueous extract of T. terrestris, minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) of the extract were determined against standard strains of Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes using the broth microdilution method. The experiments were repeated three times and the results were analyzed with SPSS 22 using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and LSD statistical tests with the significance level set at 0.05.

Results: The aqueous extract of T. terrestris had the highest inhibitory effect on S. pyogenes and S. mutans, and the difference between the MIC and MBC values was significant (P <0.05). However, no such effect was observed against S. aureus and K. pneumonia at concentrations below 50 mg/ml when compared to ampicillin and chlorhexidine.
Conclusion: The aqueous extract of T. terrestris has significant antibacterial effects against S. pyogenes and S. mutans. Therefore, it can be incorporated into topical formulations such as toothpaste and mouthwash products after further in vivo and toxicity experiments.

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