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Showing 21 results for Tabarraei

A Moradi, E Mobasheri, A Tabarraei, S Bakhshandeh Nosrat, V Kazemi Nejad, R Azarhosh, Sh Alizadeh, M Bazori,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (Spring - Summer 2009[PERSIAN] 2009)

Abstract Background and objectives: Breast cancer is the most prevalent one in women. Some of the common causative factors are genetic background, nutritional and environmental factors. Viruses are believed as a risk factor in this cancer, too. Recent studies reported that Human Papillomaviruses can be one of the possible risk factors of breast cancer. This study focused on investigation of the papillomavirus genome in tissues of breast cancer in Golestan province, Iran. Material and Methods: This descriptive analytical study was done from 2005 until 2008. The Samples were obtained from women admitted to the hospitals in Gorgan and Gonbad cities. All breast biopsy or mastectomy tissues were confirmed by the pathologists for breast cancer. DNA was extracted and PCR done by using general primers (GP5 + / GP6 + and MY09/MY11) for detection of papillomavirus genomes. Results: The Subjects are 231 patients aged 47± 12/72, the youngest 20 and the oldest 84. They are from Gorgan (N=122)and Gonbad (N=109) The result Shows That The Subjects Suffer from infiltrating ductular Carcinoma(31.4%), infiltrating duct Carcinoma (60.1%)and intraductal Lobular Carcinoma (4.3%) and The rest from other kinds of Cancer. Papilloma Virus genome is not found in These Samples. Conclusion: Based on paradoxical results from different parts of the world, upon the presence or absence of papillomavirus genome in breast cancer samples, to show the role of this virus in the development of breast cancer more studies are needed. Key words: Breast Cancer, Papillomaviruses, Golestan Province
Moradi Av, Azadfar S, Fatemehcheraghali, Javid N, Ghaemi A, Tabarraei A,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (Autumn – Winter 2011[PERSIAN] 2011)

Abstract Background and objectives: Mumps virus is one of the first known causative agents of meningitis in children. On-time diagnosis is the first step in treating meningitis. We aimed to evaluate Mumps virus meningitis in children in Gorgan, Iran Material and Methods: CSF and blood samples were taken from children with meningitis, Jun 2008 till Sep 2010. For 40 samples with negative bacterial culture, Extraction of viral RNA was carried out and Real-time PCR was performed for detection of Mumps virus. Demographic, clinical, biochemical and cytological data were collected. We run SPSS version 18 to analyze the data, using Chi Square (p<0.05). Results: three (7.5 %) samples have Mumps virus, two boys and one girl. All three positive cases have 0.5-1 degrees Celsius fever and vomiting but no bulging fontanel. They have not Kernig, Rodor, Brudzinski’s sign, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis and rash. ESR is higher than normal in all positive cases and CRP is positive in two cases. Protein of CSF in one case is higher than normal range. Conclusion: meningitis is an emergency condition therefore, molecular diagnostic techniques are recommended for early diagnosis and intervention. Key words: meningitis, mumps virus, cerebrospinal fluid, Real-Time PCR
Livani S, Mirinargesi M, Nemati-Shoja E, Rafiei S, Taziki M, Tabarraei A, ,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (Autumn – Winter 2011[PERSIAN] 2011)

Abstract Background and objectives: Identification and monitoring of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains (MDR) is highlighted by the high risk of their spreading in different areas. Prevalence of these strains was evaluated in Golestan province in northeast of Iran. Material and Methods: Drug susceptibility testing to Isoniazid and rifampin was carried out for 148 clinical samples that had grown in Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) system, according to the manufacturerchr('39')s instructions (Becton-Dickinson, USA). The association of drug resistance frequency with demographic characteristics and growth time were investigated. The appropriate statistical tests, X2 and student T- test were performed for comparison of these variants. A p value>0.05 was considered significant in all cases. Results: The turnaround time required for growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in MGIT system was between 2 to 55 days (mean 16.3±10.4 days). Of all samples studied, 17.6% and 3.4% were resistant to Isoniazid and rifampin, respectively, and 3.4% (5 samples) were MDR (CI 95% 1-6%). The turnaround time required for determining MDR cases was 9.6 days. No statistically significant association was found between the resistance to the drugs and none of the factors including sex, age, type of clinical sample, and positivity of the smear. Conclusion: The prevalence of MDR in the studied region was determined to be 3.4% which is similar to the country-wide evaluations. The turnaround time for Mycobacterium growth and anti drug susceptibility result can be shortened by MGIT method. Key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube, Multidrug Resistant
Abbasi A (md), Tajbakhsh R (md), Kabotari M, Zhand S (msc), Tabarraei A (phd), ,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (spring-summer[PERSIAN] 2012)

Abstract Background and objectives: Hepatitis B virus infection is a major health problem in worldwide. The prevalence of Occult and chronic HBV in hemodialysis patients is higher than standard in developing countries. People with occult HBV are negative for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) but positive for HBV-DNA. We aimed to evaluate occult hepatitis B infection in patients under hemodialysis in Panje-Azar hospital in Gorgan. Material and Methods: In this study, taken place from 2009 to 2010, the participants were 100 hemodialysis patients with administration of complete HBV vaccination with negative test for HBsAg. After preparing 10 milliliter blood sample, HBV DNA testing was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Result: The mean age of the patients is 54.60 years. They are male (48%) and female (52%). They have been under hemodialysis for 48 months, averagely. There has not been any HBV-DNA in HBsAg negative patients under hemodialysis. The rate of occult hepatitis B infection in these end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients was zero. Conclusion: Results indicate that there is no any occult HBV infection in ESRD patients under hemodialysis in Gorgan, which is similar to some studies. The results could be justified by complete vaccination of the patients. Key words: Occult Hepatitis B, Hemodialysis, HBsAg, Gorgan
N Keyhanvar, A Tabarraei, Y Yazdani,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (summer[PERSIAN] 2013)

Abstract Background and objective: Hepcidin is a cystein-rich antimicrobial peptide, which is secreted by the liver. It fights against wide spectrum of bacteria, viruses and fungi and it is a major regulator of iron homeostasis. Today, scientists have made many efforts on the production of hepcidin. Baculovirus expression system is one of the best eukaryotic expression systems for production of recombinant hepcidin and production of the recombinant vector is one of the most important steps in this expression system. Material & Methods: First, the total RNA was separated from HepG2 cell line as a source of hepcidin expression. Then, after synthesis of total cDNA, human hepcidin sequence was amplified, using specific primers by PCR method. Next, hepcidin sequence was cloned into pTZ57R/T vector. After digestion of recombinant vector using ECoRI and BamHI restriction enzymes, recombinant pFastBac HT B vector containing human hepcidin cDNA was produced. Results: Coding sequence of human hepcidin is correctly cloned into pTZ57R/T vector and sub cloning into pFastBac HT B vector is performed successfully. The presence of a clear band near 274 bp resulted from PCR amplification and restriction enzyme are the confirmation of the cloning of human hepcidin. Conclusion: According to our knowledge, the present study is the first work that focuses on recombinant vector containing coding sequence of human prohepcidin. This recombinant vector can be used for human hepcidin production. Key words: Vector, Hepcidin, Iron
A Tahamtan, A Moradi, A Ghaemi, M Kelishadi, H Ghafari, P Hashemi, A Tabarraei,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (summer[PERSIAN] 2013)

Abstract Background & Objective: Hepatitis E virus is one of the most common causes of acute infection in adults. Pregnant and transplant patients are more in risk of HEV infection. Fecal-oral is the main route of HEV transmission but recently transmission by blood transfusion has been observed. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of HEV-Ab in hemodialysis patients in Gorgan, Iran. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, we investigated 150 hemodialysis patients of Panje Azar hospital in Gorgan. These patients were evaluated for the presence of HEV total Ab by ELISA method. Results: of 150, 6 patients (4%) are positive for HEV-Ab. There has been no significant relation between anti HEV Ab and variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, duration and number of hemodialysis in a week and (P>0.05). Conclusion: This study, which is the first report from this area, show that the lower prevalence of anti HEV Ab in hemodialysis patients in comparison with pregnant and childbearing age women. Keywords: Hepatitis E Hemodialysis Elisa Gorgan
H Naziri, A Tabarraei, A Ghaemi, Ma Davarpanah, N Javid, A Moradi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (Autumn 2013)

Abstract Background and Objective: Resistance to antiretroviral agents is a significant concern in clinical management of HIV-infected individuals. Resistance is the result of mutations that develops in the viral protein targeted by antiretroviral agents. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the blood samples of 40 HIV-positive patients were collected. Twenty of them were drug-naïve and the rest were under treatment for at least one year by antiretroviral agents. Virus genome was extracted from patient's plasma with high-pure-viral-nucleic-acid kit. Then, by means of reverse-transcriptase and specific primers of protease genes were amplified and sequenced. Sequences of genes, drug- antiretroviral- resistant mutations and subtypes were determined using Stanford University’s HIV-drug-resistance databases. Results: Drug-naive patients show 15% resistance to nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and 20% resistance to non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Anti-protease resistance is not observed in any patients. In under treatment patients, drug resistance to NNRTI (25%) is more than drug resistance to NRTI (20%) and the rate of drug resistance to protease inhibitor is 5%. Conclusion: Our findings show a high prevalence of drug-resistant mutations in Iranian-drug-naïve-HIV-infected patients. But in under treatment individuals, the rate of drug resistance is less than previous studies. Keywords: HIV Nucleoside Inhibitor Non-Nucleoside Inhibitor Protease Inhibitor
Z Nazari, E Tabarraei, J Akbarmehr,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (spring[PERSIAN] 2014)

Abstract Background and Objective: Respiratory tract infections (RTI) are the most common infectious disorders, worldwide. About 80%-90% of RTI are caused by four viruses such as Adenoviruses, 51 serotypes have been introduced so far. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the frequency of Adenovirus in respiratory infected patients by PCR method in Golestan province, Iran. Material and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 patients with clinical diagnosis of flu-like respiratory infection, 2010-2012. In addition to collecting demographic and clinical data, nasopharyngeal swabs were taken and transferred to the virology laboratory in viral transport medium (VTM), and evaluated by PCR method for Adenovirus after genomic extraction. Using SPSS v.11 software, we analyzed the data. Results: Thirty-seven (9.2 %) were positive for Adenovirus. No significant correlation was found between being positive for Adenovirus and the variables such as age, gender and season. Clinical signs were coughing (27 73%), body pain (25 67.6%), and fever (24 64.9%). Thirty-five of the patients (94.5%) had at least one symptom. Conclusion: Our findings are consistent with other research conducted in Iran and other countries. There is a significant correlation between Adenovirus infection and clinical symptoms. Keywords: Respiratory Infection, Adenovirus, PCR, Golestan, Iran
Rezanezhadi, M, Tabarraei, A, Zhand, S, Moradi, A, Nezamzade, R, Vakili, Ma,
Volume 8, Issue 5 (winter[PERSIAN] 2015)

Abstract Background and Objective: Lamivudine is the first orally available drug approved for treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Mutations at the YMDD and FLLAQ motifs in the domains of HBV polymerase gene contribute resistance to lamivudine. This study was aimed to determine the rate of YMDD and FLLAQ mutants in hepatitis B patients in Golestan Province, Iran. Material and methods: In this cross sectional study, 120 patients with chronic HBV infection were recruited. Of them, 55 were treated and 65 untreated with Lamivudine. HBV DNA extractions from plasma and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed. For detection of Lamivudine mutants direct sequencing and alignment of products were applied using reference sequence from Gene Bank database. Results: the average age of patients was 36.31±10.07, which 35% of them were female and 65% were male. Mutations at the YMDD and FLLAQ motifs in the domains of HBV polymerase gene were detected in 12 of 55 patients (21.81%) treated with Lamivudine while no mutation was observed in in untreated patients. The YMDD and FLLAQ mutants were detected in 9.16% (11/120) and 0.83% (1/120) of chronic HBV patients, respectively. Conclusion: Usual HBV mutations, which play an important role in lamivudine resistance, detected in this study are similar to other studies. Key words: Hepatitis B Viruse, YMDD Mutation, Lamivudine, Iran.
M Talkhabifard, M, N Javid, N, A Moradi, A, A Ghaemi, A, A Tabarraei, A,
Volume 8, Issue 5 (winter[PERSIAN] 2015)

Abstract Background and Objective: Human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of congenital viral infection that can lead to serious diseases and complications in infants. Application of rapid, sensitive, and specific HCMV detection methods is necessary for congenital infection detection. We aimed to optimize the use of PCR and ELISA for detection of HCMV in infants. Material and Methods: PCR–ELISA was performed by using specific primers and probe for detection of the HCMV glycoprotein B gene. First, the extracted DNA from urine samples and controls were labeled by digoxigenin during DIG-labeling PCR. After that, Biotin-labeled probe captured the DIG-labeled PCR products. The probe-PCR product hybrid is immobilized on a streptavidin-coated Microtiter plate, and detection was confirmed by proxidase-conjugated anti-digoxigenin antibody, and calorimetric substrate. Results: The clinical Human CMV strains isolated from16 patients were detected by this method. The optimized PCR-ELISA method was able to detect less than100 copies of HCMV genome. There was no non-specific reaction. Conclusion: PCR-ELISA can be applied as a sensitive, specific and reliable method for Semi-quantitative CMV detection in clinical samples. Keywords: Cytomegalovirus, Glycoprotein B, PCR-ELISA, Semi-Quantitative
Shaffifar, M., Tabarraei, A., Sajadian, A., Fotouhi, F, Ghaemi, A,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (March, April[PERSIAN] 2015)

Abstract Background and Objective: The M2 gene expressing the conserved protein in influenza virus can be used to make a single-dose vaccine with permanent immunity. Material and Methods: The mice were allocated to one case group immunized with pcDNA3-M2 and two control groups with pcDNA and PBS, in three dozes with interval of two weeks. Two weeks after the last injection, Cellular immunity was analyzed by MTT lymphocyte proliferation, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) ratio assays. The remaining animals were challenged with PR8 virus. Results: The production rate of IFN8 and IL4 in pcDNA - M2 group was higher than that of control groups (P >0.0001). Given the results of lymphocyte proliferation, Stimulation index (SI) in vaccinated mice was significantly higher than that of control groups (P<0.05). In comparison with mortality rate of 100% in control groups , the animals Challenged with PR8 vaccine had a 50% fatal rate implying a high protection level for this vaccine. Conclusion: The pcDNA3-M2 Vaccine can be considered as a promising vaccine against influenza infections. Keywords: Influenza Virus, Gene Vaccine, M2 Protein
Farzane Salarneia , Sare Zhand , Behnaz Khodabakhshi , Alijan Tabarraei , Mohammad Ali Vakili , Naeme Javid , Masoud Bazori , Abdolvahab Moradi ,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (Jan,Feb 2016 2016)


      Background and objective: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus with high tendency toward hepatic tissue. There are currently about 3 million HBV-infected people and 350 to 400 million chronic carriers of this virus in the world. X protein plays a role in the over-expression of oncogenes, carcinogenicity of liver cells and overlaps with the basal core promoter of the virus. Mutations at specific nucleotides of this region increase viral replication and liver disease progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of mutations at nucleotides 1762, 1764 and 1766 of HBV X gene in patients with chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis B-related cirrhosis.

      Methods: In this study, 102 patients including 68 chronic hepatitis patients and 34 patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis were enrolled. After DNA extraction, HBV X gene was amplified and sequenced using Semi Nested-PCR. Obtained gene sequences were compared with the standard sequence of HBV virus X gene available in the gene bank (Okamoto AB033559). Then, the mutations in the gene X of HBV were identified.

      Results: Comparison of the standard sequence with sequences obtained from patients showed the presence of A1762T / G1764A mutation in 12 chronic (17.64%) and 13 cirrhotic (38.23%) patients. Also, C1766G / G1764T mutations were found in 8.23% of chronic patients and 17.64% of cirrhotic patients.

      Conclusion: A1762T / G1764A mutations in the overlapping region of the basal core promoter with gene X C-terminal may lead to liver disease progression from chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis, by changing the amino acid sequence of the X protein.


Nazila Hajiahmadi, Abdolvahab Moradi, Naeme Javid, Alijan Tabarraei,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (Jan-Feb- 2017 2017)

            Background and Objectives: Diagnosis of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection could be missed in some cases if serological tests are used solely. Molecular characterization of HEV is essential for diagnosis of acute and chronic HEV infections, and evaluating the chronic HEV infection status in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to prepare a suitable HEV positive control, determine the limit of detection (LOD) of HEV RNA for a specific molecular test, and evaluate the efficiency and precision of the test.
           Methods: Genomic region of HEV NCBI reference sequence was constructed. LOD, intra-assay precision, and inter-assay precision were calculated to evaluate the efficiency and precision of the test. Then, tenfold serial dilutions of the HEV positive control were prepared. Real time PCR was performed three times for each dilution. Mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation of cycle thresholds obtained in three independent and simultaneous tests were calculated, and the results were analyzed.
          Results: The LOD of this test was determined as 1.4×104 copy/ml or 42 copy/reaction or 14 copy/µl. Intra-assay precision and inter-assay precision for all assays were lower than 2.5% and 10%, respectively.
          Conclusion: We propose that the real time PCR assay targeting the ORF2/3 overlapping conserved region is suitable for detection of a wide range of different HEV genotypes found in acute and chronic HEV infections. However, the precision of the test should be improved for detecting HEV RNA lower than 103 copy/ml.
          Keywords: Hepatitis E virus, Limit of Detection, Real Time PCR.

Mishar Kelishadi , Mohammad Mojerloo, Pezhman Hashemi , Sobhan Samadi, Alijan Tabarraei,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (Jul-Aug 2017)

        Background and Objectives: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common viral cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of active CMV infection in hemodialysis patients in Gorgan, Iran.
        Methods: Plasma samples were obtained from 149 hemodialysis patients at Hemodialysis Unit of Panje-Azar Medical Centre in Gorgan, Iran. Presence of CMV-DNA in plasma samples was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers for highly conserved regions of major capsid protein gene of HCMV. In addition, level of CMV-IgM antibody was measured by serological testing. Demographic information and past medical history of patients were also recorded. Data was analyzed by SPSS software (version 18).
       Results: Total prevalence of CMV infection was 6.7% (10/149) among the patients receiving hemodialysis. CMV-DNA and anti-CMV IgM antibody were detected in 2.68% and 4.69%, of the samples, respectively. One case was found positive for both CMV-DNA and anti-CMV IgM antibody. CMV infection did not have any correlation with gender, age, ethnicity, duration of hemodialysis, and history of blood transfusion.
        Conclusion: A notable proportion of hemodialysis patients in Gorgan have active CMV infection. Accurate detection of these individuals is important for preventing infection spread, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Simultaneous diagnosis of CMV infection using serological testing and PCR assay could help reduce the risk of infection spread.
          Keywords: HCMV, Hemodialysis, PCR, Iran.

Zahra Heydarifard, Alijan Tabarraei , Nafiseh Abdollahi, Abdolvahab Moradi, Yosef Khanjari,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (Mar-Apr 2018)

          Background and Objectives: C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is a chemokine receptor expressed at high levels on the surface of T-cells. A 32-bp deletion in the coding region of the CCR5 (CCR5Δ32) leads to production of an incomplete protein that is not expressed on the cell surface. CCR5Δ32 may be involved in development of autoimmune disease, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. We investigated frequency of the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism in SLE patients and healthy controls, and evaluated the relationship between the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism and susceptibility to SLE in Golestan Province, Iran.
          Methods: Whole blood samples were taken from 80 SLE patients admitted to Shahid Sayyad Shirazi hospital and 80 healthy controls (from a blood bank) in the Golestan Province, in 2016. Baseline clinical and laboratorial characteristics were evaluated regarding the CCR5Δ32 genotypes. The CCR5Δ32 polymorphism was determined from genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction.
          Result: Genotype frequencies of both groups were in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequencies of the CCR5 and the CCR5Δ32 alleles were 98.13% and 1.88% among the patients, and 98.75% and 1.25% among the controls, respectively. Homozygote CCR5Δ32 was not observed in the subjects. The frequency of heterozygous Δ32 was 3.8% and 2.5% among the SLE patients and controls, respectively (P-value>0.05). There was no significant association between the CCR5 status and clinical signs of SLE (P>0.05).
          Conclusion: Our data suggest that the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism has no correlation with SLE in our study population. In addition, the frequency of the Δ32 polymorphism in SLE patients and controls does not follow the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
          Keywords: CCR5, Homozygote CCR5Δ32, Heterozygote CCR5Δ32, CCR5Δ32 allele, SLE.

Zahra Gray, Yousef Douzandegan, Alijan Tabarraei, Abdolvahab Moradi,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (Jul-Aug 2018)

          Background and Objectives: Nonviral carriers including those based on synthetic cationic lipids, offer several advantages over the viral counterparts. These carriers are able to form complexes with nucleic acids and deliver genes into the cells via the cellular endocytosis pathway, without significant toxicity. The level of transgenes expression depends on some experimental variables including cell type and density, Lipofectamine and DNA concentrations and Lipofectamine-DNA complexing time. The main objective of this study was to optimize transfection of SW480 colon cancer cells with Lipofectamine 2000.
          Methods: In this study, SW480 cells were transfected with plasmid containing green fluorescent protein reporter gene using Lipofectamine 2000. Green fluorescent protein expression was studied under a reverse fluorescence microscope and the results were analyzed with the ImageJ software. Effect of different quantities of plasmid DNA and different Lipofectamine 2000 volumes on cell transfection efficiency was evaluated.
          Results: The optimal volume of Lipofectamine and quantity of plasmid was 2 µl and 1µg, respectively, which showed 59% efficiency for the transfection of SW480 cells at 24 hours post-transfection.
          Conclusion: This study shows that Lipofectamine 2000 is an efficient reagent for the delivery of genes into SW480 cells. According to the results, the quantity of DNA per transfection and reagent concentrations are essential factors for a successful transfection.
          Keywords: Optimization; pEGFP-NI; Lipofectamine; SW480.

Hossein Khani , Alijan Tabarraei , Abdolvahab Moradi ,
Volume 12, Issue 6 (Nov - Dec 2018)

            Background and objectives: Coronaviruses are the main causes of respiratory tract infections in humans. They are also the second leading cause of common cold after rhinoviruses, and can lead to otitis media and asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular detection of coronaviruses in clinical samples of patients with flu-like symptoms.
            Methods: Specimens were taken from 297 patients with flu-like symptoms who were referred to the influenza laboratory of Golestan University of Medical Sciences during 2012-2014. RNA was extracted from the specimens using an RNA extraction kit. Accordingly, RNA was used for cDNA synthesis and GAPDH was used as the internal control. Synthesized cDNA was investigated for presence of human coronaviruses genome with real-time polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16.0 software. 
            Results: The coronavirus genome was not detected in the specimens of patients with flu-like symptoms.
            Conclusion: Genome of human coronaviruses is absent in samples from patients with upper respiratory tract infections and influenza-like symptoms, which may indicate the low prevalence of the virus in the Golestan Province, Iran.
            KEYWORDS: Human coronaviruses, Upper respiratory tract infection, Golestan Province.

Mishar Kelishadi , Mandana Kelishadi , Akramsadat Ahmadi , Naeme Javid , G.hossein Ashrafi , Alijan Tabarraei ,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (Mar-Apr 2019)

            Background and objectives: Pterygium is a non-cancerous growth of conjunctival tissue that can extend onto the corneal surface. The presence of some oncogenic viruses in pterygium and the neoplastic nature of these lesions led us to the postulated involvement of the viruses in the etiology of pterygium. Given the association of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) with ocular diseases, we aimed to investigate presence of this virus in pterygium.
            Methods: Fifty tissue specimens were collected from patients with pterygium who underwent pterygium surgery between February 2013 and May 2015. The specimens were tested by real-time PCR using Maxima SYBR Green/ROX qPCR Master Mix (2X) kit. Demographic and clinical data were collected and analyzed using SPSS software (version 18).
            Results: Six (12 %) specimens were positive for HHV-6 DNA. There was no statistically significant correlation between pterygium and presence of HHV-6.
            Conclusion: Based on the results, a direct association between HHV-6 and development of pterygium seems less probable, which suggests that other etiologic agents must be involved in the multistep process of the disease.
            Keywords: Human Herpesvirus 6; pterygium; Real-time PCR.

Mishar Kelishadi , Mandana Kelishadi , G.hossein Ashrafi , Alijan Tabarraei ,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (Jul-Aug 2019)

            Background and Objectives: Pterygium is a common ocular surface lesion that manifest as wing-shaped, benign conjunctival growth, which can extend onto the corneal surface. Presence of some oncogenic viruses in pterygium and the neoplastic nature of the lesion led us to the postulated involvement of the viruses in the etiology of pterygia. The aim of this study was to evaluate prevalence and possible role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the formation of pterygia.
            Methods: Fifty pterygium specimens and 10 normal conjunctival biopsy specimens (controls) were investigated by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the highly conserved regions of major capsid protein gene of HCMV. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software (IBM SPSS Statistics 18; IBM Corporation, USA) at significance level of 0.05.
            Results: The HCMV DNA was detected in seven (14%) patients with pterygium but in none of the control subjects. All subjects were β-globin positive.
            Conclusion: Given the results, direct involvement of HCMV in the development of pterygium seems less probable, thus suggesting that other agents might be involved in the multistep process of the disease.
            Keywords: Human Cytomegalovirus, Pterygium, Polymerase Chain Reaction.

Mishar Kelishadi, Pezhman Hashemi, G.hossein Ashrafi , Naser Behnampour, Alijan Tabarraei,
Volume 13, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2019)

              Background and Objectives: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is necessary for the prevention and treatment of a variety of life-threatening injuries and diseases. However, viral contamination of these products is a great threat to recipients. Screening donors for GB virus C by nucleic acid testing is not routinely implemented worldwide. The aim of the present study was to evaluate prevalence of GBV-C RNA in whole blood/red cell components.
              Methods: In this cross sectional pilot study, we collected 153 units of packed RBCs from blood banks of two public hospitals in Gorgan (northeast of Iran), between October and November 2014. The samples were screened for the presence of GBV-C RNA in plasma by nested RT-PCR using specific primers targeting highly conserved regions of 5chr('39') UTR of GBV-C. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 18).
              Results: Overall, 48 (31.37%) whole blood or red cell components were positive for GBV-C viremia. The GBV-C RNA was detected in 31/88 citrate phosphate dextrose-adenine 1 (CPDA1) RBC, 16/50 washed RBC and 1/13 reduced-leukocyte RBC. However, whole blood CPDA1 was negative for GBV-C viremia. Direct sequencing of PCR products confirmed GBV-C contamination.
              Conclusions: Transmission of GBV-C infection was observed in blood products. Thus, efforts should be made to develop new strategies for assuring blood transfusion safety.
              Keywords: Molecular testing, Epidemiology, Transfusion-transmissible infections, GB Virus C.

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