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Showing 30 results for Mohammadi

M Mohammadian Yajloo,, A Sahebgadam Lotfi, M Nasroallahzadeh Sabet, N Zhalehjoo, M Amirian, M Biglarzadeh,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (Spring - Summer 2007 [PERSIAN] 2007)

Abstract Background & Objective: Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is the major component of the human plasma alpha-1 globulin proteins and acts as a major inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes, particularly elastase. AAT deficiency is accompanied by lung, liver and other disorders, therefore, AAT is clinically important and its precise evaluation is diagnostically critical. In present study serum AAT was evaluated by three Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis (CAE), Trypsin Inhibitory Capacity (TIC) and Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID) methods and results wene compared. Materials and methods: AAT evaluation was carried out, by CAE, SRID and TIC Methods, on 318 normal sera obtained from volunteer students of Tehran Universities. Results:The results indicated: 34, 84 and 112 samples by TIC, SRID and CAE methods (with reference ranges of 2.1-3.5 mol/min/ml, 126- 226 mg/dl and 2-4.5% respectively) were abnormal 201samples by CAE and TIC were normal and 29 abnomal, 83 sera were normal by TIC and abnormal by CAE five of them were abnormal by TIC and normal by CAE 227 of the samples were normal and 29 abnormal(TIC and SRID) 57 were normal by TIC and abnormal by SRID and seven samples were abnormal by TIC and normal by SRID. Conclusion: Although CAE and alpha-1 globulin band determination are routine in clinical laboratory, they are not reliable in evaluating AAT. SRID sensitivity is more Than CAE and less Than TIC therefore, TIC is recommended as a precise and reliable method for serum AAT evaluation. Key Words: Alpha-1-antitrypsin, Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis, Single Radial Immunodiffusion, Trypsin Inhibitory Capacity

M Hedayat Mofidi, A Moradi, M Saeedi, N Behnampoor, J Arab Yaramohammadi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (Spring - Summer 2008[PERSIAN] 2008)

Abstract Backgrounds and objectives: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV- 1) infections are mostly shown as a Herpes disease, but It causes conjunctivitis, genital herpes, encephalitis and newborn herpes. This study was conducted to determine the sero-epidemiologic prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 in cases referred to clinical laboratories of Gorgan, Iran. Material and methods: In this cross sectional study, we did random blood sampling on 406 cases referred to the Gorgan citychr('39')s clinical laboratories. These samples were analyzed for HSV-1 Immunoglobulin G and M antibodies using type- specific enzymelinked Immunoassays (ELISA). Results: Of 406 participants, the HSV-1 seroprevalence is 49% (44.3% and 4.7% for IgG and IgM respectively). There is not significant relationship between seropositive HSV-1 and gender, ethnicity, age and marital status. Conclusion: Sero-epidemiological of HSV-1 in Gorgan is the same of the other places in Iran, but it is higher than European and lower than African countries. It seems that the people’s culture is very important. Therefore it needs to be investigated more. Keywords: HSV-1, Antibody, Gorgan.
H Hosain Zadegan, Sh Menati, Mj Tarrahi, F Mohammadi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (Spring - Summer 2008[PERSIAN] 2008)


Background and Objectives

associated infections has been gained attention by most researchers. We

designed this cross-sectional study to evaluate MRSA and VRSA

frequency in the Shohadai Ashayer hospital of Khorram Abad, Iran.

: Increased drug resistance, and its

Material and Methods:

moistened with normal saline from interior nares of 300 personnel and

immediately cultured on a Mannitol Salt Agar.Suspected colonies were

confirmed by biochemical methods. Methicillin and Vancomycin

resistance of isolated strains was carried out by agar dilution according

to recommendations of National Clinical Laboratory Institute.

Samples were obtained by sterile swab


carriers of S.aureus. 16 (5.33%) and 4 (1.33%) of the carriers were

Methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin resistant

S.aureus (VRSA), respectively. One (0.33%) of the personnel was

concurrently the carrier of both MRSA and VRSA.No correlation was

found between carriage and factors such as sex, age, ward of hospital

and length of occupation, and predisposing diseases. Kind of

occupation and level of education were significantly related with carrier


Sixty-four (21.33%) of 300 studied personnel were nasal


consistent with other published reliable documents. Isolation of four

VISA and one VRSA strains from studied personnel was the interesting

findings of this study. Because of carrying of such resistant strains in

hospital personnel and risks of transmission to patients, it needs further

attention of health officials.

: Percentage of S.aureus carriers in hospital personnel was



(MRSA), Vancomycin resistant S.aureus (VRSA), Vancomycin

intermediate S.aureus (VISA),Carrier, Khorram Abad, IRAN

Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin resistant S.aureus

Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin resistant S.aureus

Hoseini, S. S. (msc), Rudbar Mohammadi, Sh. (phd), Joshaghani, H. R. (phd),
Volume 5, Issue 2 (Autumn – Winter 2011[PERSIAN] 2011)

Abstract Background and objectives: Candida albicans is a human opportunistic fungus causing mucosal and systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. There is evidence of increasing resistance to antifungal agents, thus it is necessary to search about new formulations for finding the antifungal agents. Some plants have antimicrobial properties due to presence of components such as polyphenols. We aimed at evaluating antifungal effects of Carvacrol essence, which is the main compound of essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, on standard Fluconazole sensitive and resistance strains of Candida albicans. Material and Methods: This study evaluated the antiCandida activity of essential oil Carvacrol by means of Inhibitory zone diameter and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), using Microdilution broth and Disc diffusion methods. To do this, Serial dilutions (10-100 µl) of essential oils were made in 96 well microtiter plates. The wells’ opacity was assessed by using a microtiter plate reader of solution. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of essential oil Carvacrol and Fluconazole were measured by counting the number of colony in Dextro agar medium. Results: the minimum inhibitory concentration of Carvacrol essence in standard strains and Fluconazole-resistance Candida albicans are, respectively, 5.3 and 6.18µg/ml, and the Minimal Fungicide Concentration (MFC) are 10.61 and 12. 3µg/ml. Inhibitory zone diameters are 45 and 35 millimeter for Fluconazole sensitive and resistance Candida albicans, respectively. Conclusion: the results show that essence of Carvacrol has suitable antifungal effects against standard strains and Fluconazole sensitive and resistance of Candida albicans. These herbal essences, after supplementary studies, possibly can be used for infections caused by Candidas. Key words: Antifungal activity Carvacrol Candida albicans Fluconazole
Nazari, H, Habibeh Najar, H, Emadi, A, Abasi, Y, Salehiyan, A, Monem, M, Ghods, F, Mohammadi, A., Khaleghian, A,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (Autumn – Winter 2011[PERSIAN] 2011)

Abstract Background and objectives: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway. G6PD deficiency (an X-linked recessive hereditary disease) is an inherited condition affecting approximately 3% of the people globally. This deficiency can cause hemolytic anemia and jaundice in neonates. The goal of this study is to detect the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in neonates referred to Semnan province screening lab Material and Methods: This cross sectional study, from 2007 to 2010, was conducted on the basis of country planned program and in line with neonatal screening tests. Blood samples were taken from the heels of 3-5 day neonates. Assessment of G6PD was done by rapid fluorescent spot test. The Prevalence of G6PD deficiency in boys and girls was compared by chi square (p<0.05(test. Results: Of 9353 newborns referred to semnan province screening Lab., 4820(51.53%) are males and 4533(48.47%) females. Three hundred (3.2%) of them suffer from G6PD deficiency. Of these, 263 (5.45%) are males and 37 (0.81%) females. The ratio of male to female is 7 to 1. Conclusion: The prevalence of G6PD deficiency is detected 3.2% in Semnan province and its frequency in boys is more than that of girls, which is expected. Key words: Glucose -6-phosphate dehydrogenase, Neonatal screening, Fauvism
M Rostami, F Tohidi, M Sharbatkhori, H Taherkhani, A Eteraf, R Mohammadi, F Maghsoodloorad,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (Autumn- Winter [PERSIAN] 2012)

Abstract Background&Objectives: High prevalence of parasitic infections can be the result of the subclinical infections. Some regular and ongoing epidemiological studies are needed to combat and control these infections. This study was conducted on elementary school students to achieve an overview of the spread of parasitic infections in Gorgan. Material & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, using random cluster sampling, 800 of 7-12 year-old students were selected from 18 primary schools in Gorgan. The stool samples taken on three consecutive days were examined by two methods including direct smear and formalin-ether concentration. Results: Overall, 230 (28.8%) are infected by intestinal parasites. The protozoa are Blastocystis hominis (122 15/2%), Entamoeba coli (93 11/6%), Giardia intestinalis (79 9.9%), and Entamoeba histolytic (8 1%). The Helminthes are Hymenolepis nana (12 1.5%), Entrobius vermicularis (10 1.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides in 4 (0.5%) and hook worms (3 0.4). Conclusion: Based on the results, the prevalence of intestinal parasites is quite high among primary school students especially in families with low education level, income and sanitary level. Hence, it is a necessity to promote the hygienic knowledge of the students . Key words: Prevalence, Intestinal parasites, Primary schools students, Gorgan
M Alimohammadi, M Rostami, M Jorfi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (Autumn- Winter [PERSIAN] 2012)

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic disorder during pregnancy which is associated with 3 to 4 folds of increase in the risk of maternal and fetal morbidity, if it is not diagnosed early (1). Gestational diabetes occurs from 1% to 14%, and 90% of pregnancy-related diabetes has been related to gestational diabetes (2). Glucose challenge test (GCT) and glucose tolerance test (GTT) are recommended by American Diabetes Association (ADA) for screening and diagnosing of gestational diabetes (3). In this cross-sectional study, the subjects were the pregnant women during 24-28 weeks of gestation referred to Khatam-o-allanbia laboratory of Arak city in 2009. First, we explained the aim of the project and then obtained the written consent. After being fast for at least 8-12 hours, five ml of their venous blood was drown. For GCT, the blood samples were obtained one hour after consumption of 50g of glucose powder. The Individuals whose GCT was equal or higher than 130 mg/dl were introduced for GTT in the future days. After 8-12 hours of being fast, blood samples were taken to perform GTT. Then after eating 100 grams of glucose powder, their 1, 2 and 3 hour -venous blood samples were drown to perform glucose test, using glucose testing kit of Pars Azmun Company and Mindary BS-300 autoanalyser. The average age of referred pregnant women is 27.37±10.24 year. Of 417, 403 (96.64%) have normal fasting plasma glucose (≤ 99 mg/dl) and 14 (3.36%) have abnormal fasting plasma glucose (≥ 100 mg/dl). When normal GCT is considered ≥140 mg/dl and ≥130 mg/dl, 357 (85.61%) and 308 (73.56%) have normal GCT and 60 (14.39%) and 109 (26.14%) have abnormal GCT, respectively. The Average of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and GCT are 83.86 (73-243) and 118.32 (140-351) mg/dl, respectively. In 9 (64.29%) of women with abnormal FPG, the GCT test is also abnormal. By performing GTT for the women whose GCT was equal or higher than 130 mg/dl, 24 (5.76%) were identified with gestational diabetes and introduced for treatment. If 140 mg/dl was considered as a cutoff point of GCT, four women (0.94%) would falsely be non-diabetic. Based on this study, the prevalence of GDM is 5.74% that is not so high, compared to the range of 4.8 to 7.4% of the country (4). A study conducted by Soheilykhah et al. on 1071 pregnant women with GCT of ≥ 130 mg /dl, 31.9% of the women had abnormal GCT. After doing GTT, 110 patients (10.2%) have been diagnosed with gestational diabetes (2) that is higher than the prevalence of other studies in Iran. Due to results of this study and other studies, it seems that the GCT is not a reliable test for screening gestational diabetes. On the other hand, if GCT is going to be used, further studies are required to review the current Cutoff point of this test. Key words: Glucose challenge test (GCT), Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), Gestational diabetes.
A Ebrahimzadeh, S Mohammadi, T Davoodi, Ar Salimi Khorashad, A Jamshidi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (Autumn 2013)

Abstract Background and Objective: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections worldwide. Contamination of pregnant women with toxoplasmosis may cause fetal death, preterm delivery and congenital toxoplasmosis. Due to importance of congenital Toxoplasmosis and the need of further study, this research was accomplished in Zahedan. Material and Methods: The serum samples (N= 221) were collected from pregnant women referring to reference laboratory of Zahedan in 2011. The IgG and IgM antibody levels against toxoplasmosis were investigated using ELISA method. Results: Out of all samples, 30.8% are IgG positive and 1.4% are both IgG and IgM positive. There is no significant difference between positive and negative groups using Chi-square tests. Conclusion: The main part of pregnant women in Zahedan (69.2%) is serologically negative against toxoplasmosis therefore, hygiene education to eliminate risk factors especially during pregnancy period seems to be imperative. Keywords: ELISA Antibody Pregnancy Toxoplasma Zahedan
A Jamshidi, M Mousavi Ghahfarrokhi, A Gharaei, A Ebrahimzadeh, M Jaffari Modrek, A Ansari Moghadam, S Mohammadi,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (spring[PERSIAN] 2014)

Abstract Background and Objective: The Plasmodium falciparum EBA-175, via Sialic acid dependent glycophorin A, binds to red blood cells and thus plays a critical role in cell invasion. Some part of second allele in its gene encoding in FCR-3 (Section F) and CAMP (Section C) can be found. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum EBA-175KD alleles in southeastern Iran. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, using polymerase chain reaction Nest (Nested-PCR) with specific primers was used for the two parts of the EBA-175 gene to be proliferated. Ninety–four microscopic positive blood samples from individuals infected by Plasmodium falciparum were obtained from four different locations in southeastern Iran. Results: Of 94 positive samples, 88 were antigen EBA-175KD. Genotype CAMP (714 bp) and FCR-3 (to 795 bp), respectively, in 31 (32.97 %) and 49 (52.12 %) were found. Eight samples have both FCR-3 and CAMP. Conclusion: Both of EBA-175KD dimorphic genes were found. The frequency of FCR-3 allele was higher in the South East of Iran. Thus, this pattern can be considered in making Plasmodium falciparum vaccines for this area. Key words: Plasmodium Falciparum Erythrocyte Binding Antigen-175 South-East of Iran
S Zhand, A Tabaraei, A Moradi, F Fotoohi, N Javid, M Bazoori, E Haji Mohammadi, A Ghaemi,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (summer 2014[PERSIAN] 2014)

Abstract Background and Objective: The emergence of a novel H1N1influenza A virus of animal origin with transmissibility from human to human poses pandemic concern. Current subtypes of Seasonal influenza A viruses spread in human are influenza A H1N1 influenza A H3N2 and influenza type B viruses. The aim of this study was to determine current strains of the H3N2 and new H1N1 subtypes of influenza A virus from patients suspected influenza infection in 2009 flu pandemic in Golestan province, Iran. Material and Methods: In this descriptive study, respiratory samples (n = 153) from patients with acute respiratory symptoms were collected in 2009 flu pandemic applied during 2009 pandemic influenza in Golestan province. After reverse transcription of extracted viral RNA, PCR was developed for both H1N1and H3N2subtypes using CDC specific primers. Results: The mean age of patients was 16.59. Of them 45.1% were male. Thirteen (8.49%) were infected with seasonal influenza H1N1 and 25(16.33%) with seasonal H3N2influenza. Conclusion: The rate of infection with seasonal H1N1and H3N2is similar to other studies reported from Iran, but lower than the rate reported from other parts of the world. Key Words: Influenza A Virus, H1N1, H3N2, RT-PCR, Iran
Mt Badele, M Mirzaian, M Babaei, B Badele, F Derakhshan Pour, S Mohammadian,
Volume 8, Issue 5 (winter[PERSIAN] 2015)

Abstract Background and Objective: With regard to high prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its being significantly affected by nutritional factors, we aimed to determine the relationship between Ferritin serum level and ADHD. Material and methods: This ex-post- facto (causal comparative research) design study was conducted on 60 children, selected via convenience sampling. Thirty of them were ADHD children diagnosed by a psychiatrist using DSM IV checklist, as a case group, and the rest were healthy ones located in control group. Having their family informed consent, their Ferritin level was measured via ELIZA method. Results: The results show that Ferritin serum level of ADHD children are lower than that of healthy ones. Using t- test, it was indicated that the difference is significant (p= 0.002). Besides, the result of Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there is no significant relation between Ferritin and ADHD. Conclusion: In terms of the results and the importance of this issue, we recommend conducting further controlled research. Keywords: Ferritin, ADHD, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Mesgarian, F, Sharbatkhori, M, Mohammadi, R, Rajabi, Mh,
Volume 8, Issue 5 (winter[PERSIAN] 2015)

Abstract Background and Objective: Cryptosporidium is a common protozoan causing diarrhea in human, specifically in children. Hence, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of this protozoan among diarrheic children hospitalized in Gonbad Kavus in 2011. Material and Methods: Three stool samples were collected from diarrheic children in two hospitals of Gonbad city and a relevant questionnaire was filled out for each child. The stool samples were concentrated by formalin ether method, and the infection was assessed by modified acid-fast staining method. Results: Of 547 children, 27 (4.9%) were infected with cryptosporidiosis. There was no significant relationship between the amount of infection and gender and habitation area (urban/ rural). The infection rate was significantly prevalent in 2-4-year-old children (P=0.013). The most and the least infection rate were observed in spring and winter, respectively (P< 0.0001). There was a significant association between the disease and keeping animal (P= 0.041) Conclusion: The prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in diarrheic children in Gonbad is almost equal to other regions of the country and keeping animal and spring season may be considered as the risk factors for the disease. Keywords: Cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidiosis, Diarrhea, Children, Golestan, Iran
Gol Mohammadi, R, Tabaraei, A, Abbasi, A, Khademi, N, Mahdavian, B, Javid, N, Kaleji, H, Kamasi,a, Bazoori, M, Moradi, A,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (March, April[PERSIAN] 2015)

Abstract Background and Objective: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) can effectively prevent the progression of HIV-1 replication and increase life expectancy. There are numerous causes of treatment failure and the leading one is drug resistance. Thus, we aimed to determine the HIV RT gene drug resistance mutations in patients treated with antiretroviral medications. Material and Methods: In this cross - sectional study, venous blood was taken from 130 HIV-positive patients treated with antiretroviral medications. In order to determine drug resistance mutations, RT-PCR and PCR steps were performed using RT gene specific primers. Subtypes and mutations in the virus genome were determined using the Stanford HIV drug resistance sequence database. Results: In 122 treating patients, most of the major mutations were associated with nucleoside and non-nucleoside drugs. subtype A in 66.4%, subtype D in 26.2% and subtype B in 7.4% of the participants were reported. They were resistant to Nucleoside RT Inhibitor drugs (23.7%) and Non-Nucleoside RT Inhibitor drugs(30.3%). The highest were related to Nevirapine (21.3%) and Efavirenz (19.7%) and the lowest to both Tenofovir and Zidovudine (91.5%). Conclusion: The use of two nucleoside RT inhibitor drugs combined with one protease inhibitor drug could be effective in the treatment of HAART. Key words: HIV, Nucleoside RT Inhibitor, Non- Nucleoside RT Inhibitor
Monadi, M, Kargar, M, Naghiha, A, Najafi, A, Mohammadi, R,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (March, April[PERSIAN] 2015)

Abstract Background and Objective: Salmonellosis is the most common type of food poisoning in developed and developing countries that is caused by Salmonella serotype. Hence, we aimed to identify the Salmonella serovars in eggs obtained from Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad province and to evaluate antibiotic resistance of the isolated strains. Material and Methods: In this study, 210 eggs were collected from Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad Province. The bacteria were isolated and identified using biochemical tests. After extraction of genomic DNA, Salmonella gender, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium were investigated by invA, fliC and sefA primers, respectively, using Multiplex PCR method. Results: Of 210, 14 (6.66%) were contaminated with Salmonella. Of these, 12 (5.71%) were Salmonella typhimurium and 2 (0.95%) were related to Salmonella spp. None of the samples were contaminated with Salmonella enteritidis. The highest resistance was related to penicillin (100%) and neomycin (78.57%). Conclusion: Salmonella typhimurium is the predominant serovar causing contamination in the eggs of this Province. Given the wide spread of antibiotic resistance in different serotypes of Salmonella, we recommend avoiding of indiscriminate use of antibiotics in livestock and poultry. Keywords: Salmonella, Drug Resistance, Antibiotic, Multiplex PCR, Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad
Gharahjeh, S, Nowzari, A, Azarhoush, R, Fuladi Nejad, M, Nematollahi, N, Aryaei, M, Mohammadi, R,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (may,jun 2015[PERSIAN] 2015)


Background and Objective: Neonatal sepsis is a remarkable factor in mortality, morbidity, neonatal and perinatal complications. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the primary cause of invasive disease in infants and pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the relationship between antimicrobial resistance of the bacteria colonized in the vagina and rectum of pregnant women and early neonatal infection.

Material and Methods: In this prospective study conducted on 282 pregnant women, bacterial sensitivity to ampicillin, cefazolin, erythromycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, amikacin was measured. Furthermore, the relationship between rectal and vaginal colonization of mothers and early neonatal sepsis was evaluated.

Results: Of 98 positive rectal cultures, 49 (50%) were Gram-positive cocci and 49 (50%) E.coli. of 143 positive vaginal cultures, 136 (95.1%) were Gram-positive cocci, 7 (4.9%) were E.coli and two were positive GBS.  We could find definitive neonatal sepsis. Significant correlation was found between a history of urinary tract infection and the motherchr('39')s positive rectal culture (P =0. 03).

Conclusion: Clinical sepsis in neonates is correlated with positive rectal culture (P =0. 001) and the positive E.coli vaginal cultures is associated with suspected neonatal sepsis (P =0.007). Gram-positive cocci were resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin, and E.coli was resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin and vancomycin. Because of resistance to ampicillin, we recommend cefazolin due to its sensitivity to organisms and safety in pregnancy.

Keywords: Antibacterial Agents, Escherichia Coli, Gram-Positive Cocci, Newborn, Sepsis

Badeleh, Mt, Mirzaian, M, Babaei, M, Badeleh, M, Derakhshan Pour, F, Mohammadian, S, Vakili, Ma, Charkazi, A,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (Jul,Aug2015[PERSIAN] 2015)


Background and Objective:  With regard to high prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its being significantly affected by nutritional factors, we aimed  to determine the relationship between  zinc serum level and  ADHD.

Material and Methods:  This ex-post- facto (causal comparative research) design study was conducted on 60 children, selected via convenience sampling. Thirty of them were ADHD children diagnosed by a psychiatrist using DSM IV checklist, as a case group, and the rest were healthy ones located in control group. Having their family informed consent, their Zinc level was measured via Colorimetric method.

Results: The results show that Zinc serum level of ADHD children are lower than that of healthy ones.  Using t- test, it was indicated that the difference is not significant. Besides, the result of Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there is no significant relation between Zinc and ADHD.

Conclusion: given that the zinc level was lower in ADHD children, the difference was not significant. Therefore, we recommend conducting further research with a larger sample size.

Ali Mohammadi , Maryam Hashemi , Masoud Hosseini ,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (Mar,Apr2016 2016)

Background and Objective: Considering the increasing tendency of public towards green consumption and the dangers of artificial additives, this study aimed to assess antibacterial activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Mentha piperita L., Zataria multiflora Boiss and Thymus vulgaris against three important pathogenic and spoilage bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Erwinia carotovora and Escherichia coli).

  • After obtaining the essential oils from Magnolia Co., their antimicrobial activity was assessed using broth microdilution method by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50, MIC90) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). All experiments were performed in triplicate and the data were analyzed using the GraphPad software and Duncanchr('39')s new multiple range test.
  • All essential oils showed antimicrobial activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Increasing the concentration of essential oils from 0.01% to 4% (v/v) significantly enhancing the antibacterial activity. The statistical calculations and comparison of data showed that the essential oils of C. zeylanicum and Z. multiflora performed better compared to  the other two essential oils, due to having lower values of MIC50 (≤0.1%), MIC90 (≤0.4%) and MBC (≤1%) (P <0.05).
  • Considering the high antimicrobial activity of essential oils of C. zeylanicum and Z. multiflora, they can be used as effective food additives with fewer side effects. However, further studies are being conducted on the effectiveness of essential oils on the growth of other microorganisms and their results will be published soon.
  • Essential Oils, Antimicrobial, Pathogenic Bacteria, Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, Zataria Multiflora Boiss.

Amir Mohammadi , Masoume Mazandarani , Jila Asghari (phd),
Volume 10, Issue 3 (May-Jun 2016 2016)


          BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Stachys inflata Benth. is used as an anti-inflammatory and antiseptic agent in traditional medicine in most mountain villages of Golestan province. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the antioxidant, ethnopharmacological and phytochemical properties of extract from different parts of S. inflata, collected from Chahar Bagh Mountain.

         METHODS: Flowering branches and root of the plant were collected from Chahar Bagh Mountain (2100 m) in July 2013. At the same time, the most important information about traditional uses of the plant (ethnopharmacology) was recorded by questioning local people. Phytochemical evaluation (total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanins content) of ethanolic extract of plant organs was done using spectrophotometry and folin-ciocalteu. The antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH test. P ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

       RESULTS: The amount of chemical compounds in the extract of flowering branches and root extract was significantly different. The total phenolic (129.96 ± 5.6 mgGAE/g), flavonoid (29.62 ± 1.4 mgQUE/g) and anthocyanin (0.021 ± 0.001 µg/g) content in the extract of aerial parts of the plant was approximately 1.5 to 3 times higher than those in the root. Due to higher production of active compounds, the antioxidant activity of the aerial parts’ extract showed  a greater potential in free radical scavenging (IC50= 76.33 ± 4.2 µg/ml) compared to the root extract.

        CONCLUSION: Phytochemical findings and antioxidant activity of the extract of aerial parts of the plant in free radical scavenging, confirm the traditional applications of this plant as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic agent in treatment of rheumatism, wounds, burns and diarrhea. It is recommended that further evaluation of the plant’s traditional applications be conducted in vivo and in vitro.


Shima Doostmohammadi , Babak Kheirkhah , Seyed Mohammad Reza Khoshroo ,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (Jul-Aug 2016 2016)


         Background and Objectives: Size of silver nanoparticles synthesized by ethanol and Bacillus lichenioformisis 20 nm and 15 nm, respectively. Nanoparticles can be used in treatment of several diseases. Chemical and biological methods have been used to synthesize silver nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to compare the size, shape and coating of silver nanoparticles synthesized by the chemical and biological methods.

        Methods: Ethanol was used in the chemical reduction method and B. licheniformis was used in the biological method. Physical evaluation (salt test), absorbance measurement at 450 nm and imaging by transmission electron microscopy were performed to compare nanoparticles in terms of size, shape and coating.

         Results: Observed maroon color, maximum absorption at 400-450 nm range and electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of nanoparticles. The shape of nanoparticles synthesized by the two methods was spherical. However, biosynthesized nanoparticles were smaller and had protein coating.

          Conclusion: Given the smaller size of biosynthesized nanoparticles and presence of coating confirmed by the electron microscopy images, biosynthesis is recommended because of enhanced nanoparticles properties and reduced toxicity.

            Keywords: Nanoparticles, Coating, Toxicity.

Keiwan Ebrahimi Mohammadi , Faraz Arashrad,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct-2016 2016)


        Background and Objective: Microalgae are a group of algae that produce biochemical products consisting of a wide range of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins that are commercially valuable. Interest in microalgal cultivation is currently blossoming globally. Species of Dunaliella are found in freshwater, euryhaline habitats of all continents, oceans including the Dead Sea and even the salt lakes of the Antarctic. This study investigates the effect of different salinity levels on β-carotene production by Dunaliella sp.

       Methods: Water samples from a hyper-saline lake (the Maharlu Lake in Shiraz) were cultured in modified Johnson media. The β-carotene content was measured after the samples were treated with different salinities (1, 2 and 3M NaCl).

         Results: The cell count and β-carotene content of Dunaliella sp. samples ranged between 0.46×106 to 2.12×106 cell.mL-1 and 0.15 to 9.98 pg.cell-1, respectively. At the end of the experiments, the mean maximum cell content (1.78×106 cell. mL-1) and the highest mean β-carotene content (7.41 pg. cell-1) were obtained at 2 and 3M NaCl concentrations, respectively.

       Conclusion: Salinity of the medium might affect the quantity and composition of carotenoids in Dunaliella sp. isolates. Alteration of the culture medium’s salinity to 3M NaCl significantly increases the accumulation of β-carotene and total carotenoids in Dunaliella sp. isolates.

       Keywords: Dunaliella, Microalgae, Maharlu Lake, β-carotene.

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