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M Mohammadian Yajloo,, A Sahebgadam Lotfi, M Nasroallahzadeh Sabet, N Zhalehjoo, M Amirian, M Biglarzadeh,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (Spring - Summer 2007 [PERSIAN] 2007)

Abstract Background & Objective: Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is the major component of the human plasma alpha-1 globulin proteins and acts as a major inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes, particularly elastase. AAT deficiency is accompanied by lung, liver and other disorders, therefore, AAT is clinically important and its precise evaluation is diagnostically critical. In present study serum AAT was evaluated by three Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis (CAE), Trypsin Inhibitory Capacity (TIC) and Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID) methods and results wene compared. Materials and methods: AAT evaluation was carried out, by CAE, SRID and TIC Methods, on 318 normal sera obtained from volunteer students of Tehran Universities. Results:The results indicated: 34, 84 and 112 samples by TIC, SRID and CAE methods (with reference ranges of 2.1-3.5 mol/min/ml, 126- 226 mg/dl and 2-4.5% respectively) were abnormal 201samples by CAE and TIC were normal and 29 abnomal, 83 sera were normal by TIC and abnormal by CAE five of them were abnormal by TIC and normal by CAE 227 of the samples were normal and 29 abnormal(TIC and SRID) 57 were normal by TIC and abnormal by SRID and seven samples were abnormal by TIC and normal by SRID. Conclusion: Although CAE and alpha-1 globulin band determination are routine in clinical laboratory, they are not reliable in evaluating AAT. SRID sensitivity is more Than CAE and less Than TIC therefore, TIC is recommended as a precise and reliable method for serum AAT evaluation. Key Words: Alpha-1-antitrypsin, Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis, Single Radial Immunodiffusion, Trypsin Inhibitory Capacity

A Nazemi, M Naderi, M Jafarpour, M Mirinargesi, Sh Sharifi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (Autumn – Winter 2011[PERSIAN] 2010)

Abstract Bachground and objectives: The ability of adherence to the surface of host cell is very critical in the colonization of microbial pathogens. It has been revealed that E. coli strains that infect urinary tracts have different fimbrea such as I, S, FIC, Dr, and fimbrial adhesions. Material and Methods: In this study, 363 urine samples were obtained from patients with urinary tract infections reffered to clinical laboratories in Western areas of Tehran ,2008-2010 by using biochemical tests,200 samples were confirmed to be E.coli.First, DNA was extracted by boiling method and then the presence of fimbria fim, sfa, pap, foc, and afa genes tested by PCR. Results: In 200 samples, the frequency of fimbria fim, sfa, pap, foc, and afa genes are188 (%94 ), 34 (%17), 20 (%10), 61 (%31) and 71 (%35.5), respectively. Conclusion: The resultes show that FIM ans SFA are the most fimbrial genes of E. coli isolated from urine samples .This information can be valuable in etiology of urinary tract infection (UTI), UTI administration, and making of new vaccines. Key words: Urinary tract infection, fimbria, Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC)
Livani S, Mirinargesi M, Nemati-Shoja E, Rafiei S, Taziki M, Tabarraei A, ,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (Autumn – Winter 2011[PERSIAN] 2011)

Abstract Background and objectives: Identification and monitoring of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains (MDR) is highlighted by the high risk of their spreading in different areas. Prevalence of these strains was evaluated in Golestan province in northeast of Iran. Material and Methods: Drug susceptibility testing to Isoniazid and rifampin was carried out for 148 clinical samples that had grown in Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) system, according to the manufacturerchr('39')s instructions (Becton-Dickinson, USA). The association of drug resistance frequency with demographic characteristics and growth time were investigated. The appropriate statistical tests, X2 and student T- test were performed for comparison of these variants. A p value>0.05 was considered significant in all cases. Results: The turnaround time required for growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in MGIT system was between 2 to 55 days (mean 16.3±10.4 days). Of all samples studied, 17.6% and 3.4% were resistant to Isoniazid and rifampin, respectively, and 3.4% (5 samples) were MDR (CI 95% 1-6%). The turnaround time required for determining MDR cases was 9.6 days. No statistically significant association was found between the resistance to the drugs and none of the factors including sex, age, type of clinical sample, and positivity of the smear. Conclusion: The prevalence of MDR in the studied region was determined to be 3.4% which is similar to the country-wide evaluations. The turnaround time for Mycobacterium growth and anti drug susceptibility result can be shortened by MGIT method. Key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube, Multidrug Resistant
J Hashemi, J Asadi, T Amiriani, S Beshrat, Gh Roshandel, Hr Joshaghani,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (spring[PERSIAN] 2013)

Abstract Background and objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases. It is a functional bowel disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain and alternation of bowel habits with no structural abnormality. The prevalence of this disease was estimated 10-20 percent in the world. However, the cause of IBS is still unknown. Regarding to intestinal absorption disorder of nutrients, the malabsorption of vitamin may occur. The aim of this study is to evaluate serum levels of vitamins A and E in IBS patients. Materials & Methods: This case - control study was done on 94 patients whom their IBS disease were confirmed by a gastroenterologist in Golestan province. The control group was selected from healthy people, who didn't show any signs of digestive problems in past two years. The age and sex were matched with the cases group. Using HPLC method, Fasting blood samples were collected .Followed by measurement of Serum levels of vitamins A and E. Results: the meanserum levels of vitamin A and E in patients and control group were 57.0 ± 114.8μg / dl and23.8 ± 55.9 μg / dl, and 0.50 ± 0.24 mg / dl and 1.93 ± 1.86 mg / dl, respectively. (P <0.05). in men, the deficiency of Vitamin A and E, were7.70 and 7.10 percent and 6.76 and 3.7 in women. (P <0.05).In general, 1.1percent of IBS patients showed Vitamin A deficiency and 93.6 percent of them had vitamin E deficiency (P <0.05). Conclusion: In this study, a significant decrease in vitamin E levels was observed in patients with IBS. Due to antioxidant activity of vitamin E, the deficiency of this Vitamin, can increase the oxidative factors leading to intestinal damages and it is expected to decrease the amount of vitamins, subsequently Keywords: Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Gorgan
M Amiri, S Nazemi, M Raei, R Chaman, P Norouzi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (Autumn 2013)

Abstract Background and Objective: Parasitic infection is one of the major health problems in the world. This study aimed at comparing the accuracy of two methods of direct examination and Formalin-Ether to detect the presence of parasitic infection among health-card applicants in Shahroud city, 2011. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 801 patients seeking health-card. From each patient, three consecutive stool samples were taken and investigated, using direct examination and formalin-ether method. Results: The use of formalin-ether method in recognizing the parasitic infection specially giardia lamblia and entamobea coli is more than the direct method. Conclusion: The formalin-ether method is a more sensitive method than the direct method. But in circumstances that is urgency to respond or aims to see the shape of trophozoite, the use of direct method is recommended. Keywords: Parasitic Infections Health Card Direct Method Formalin-Ether
M Javadzadeh, M Najafi, M Rezaei, M Dastoor, Aa Behzadi, A Amiri,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (summer 2014[PERSIAN] 2014)

Abstract Background and Objective: Honey is a healthy and nutritious food that has been used for a long time as a treatment for different diseases. One of the applied properties of honey is its antimicrobial effect, which differs between different types of honey due to variation of phenolic and antioxidant compositions. This study aimed to assess antimicrobial effect of honey on Bacillus cereus, considering its chemical properties. Material and Methods: Three samples of honey (A1 and A2 of Khorasan Razavi Province and A3 of South Khorasan province (were prepared and studied in terms of chemical parameters .The antibacterial effect of honey was surveyed throughTurbidimeter using spectrometer with incubator time of 2, 4, 6, and 8hrs. the level of turbidity caused by bacterium growth was measured at different times with a wavelength of 600nm. Results: According to the study, the samples containing higher concentration of polyphenol has more antimicrobial activity. The samples of A2, A3, and A1 had the highest concentration of polyphenol, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicate the prebiotic effect of honey that can be justified by the presence of fructo-oligosacharids and vitamin B. Keywords: Honey, Bacillus Cereus, Antibacterial, Turbidimetry.
J Panahi, Mr Havasian, J Abdi, K Sayehmiri,
Volume 8, Issue 5 (winter[PERSIAN] 2015)

Abstract In this study, the prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus was surveyed by meta-analysis and systematic review. Using main keywords of Echinococcus granulosus, dog and carnivores, we searched standard sites such as Google scholar, SID, Pubmed, Iranmedex, Irandoc, Science direct and magiran. Fifteen reliable articles were reviewed and analyzed by STATA software, Ver 11. From obtained articles, the number of 2271 dogs, 167 jackals and 174 foxes have been investigated by Iranian researchers. The infection rate of E.granulosus was reported 27.4% (95% CI, 20.9-33.9) in this study in that the highest from north and north west of Iran with prevalence of 33.3 %(CI:22.1-44.4), the lowest by 21.9 %(CI:12.5-31.3) from west and south west of Iran and the average from the central region of Iran ( 26.9% CI:12.8-41). Among cities the highest (64%) and the lowest (3.3%) infection rate were reported in Garmsar city (2010) and Sistan and Balochestan province (1997). Given that the overall prevalence of E.granulosus in Iran is high, Control and prevention measures including destruction of stray dogs and treatment of owner dogs seems to be necessary. Keywords: Echinococcus Granulosus, Carnivores, Iran, Systematic Review
Keikha, N, Ayatollahi Mousavi, Sa, Nakhaei, Ar, Amanloo, S, Shahidi, Gh, Amiri, S,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (March, April[PERSIAN] 2015)

Abstract Background and Objective: Dermatophytes are the fungi that have the ability to attack the keratinized tissues such as the skin, hair and nails. Infections caused by these organisms are named dermatophytosis. We aimed to compare Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Crude extracts of Active Actinomycete Isolates with Terbinafine, Griseofulvin, Ketoconazole and Fluconazole Drugs against Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Material and Methods: In this experimental study, in order to find MIC by actionmycete, 100 isolates were studied and then crude extracts of the active actinomycete isolates were prepared in sterile conditions. Finally, the crude extracts obtained at different concentrations were used to obtain the MIC of Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Moreover, various concentrations of the drugs such as terbinafine, griseofulvin, ketoconazole and fluconazole in solvent Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were prepared and their growth inhibitory effect was evaluated and then compared with the results obtained from the crude extract of active actinomycete isolates. Results: the crude extracts obtained from active Actioiomycetes isolates and the drugs such as terbinafine, griseofulvin, ketoconazole and fluconazole, in a dose-dependent manner, could inhibit the growth of Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton Mentagrophytes. Conclusion: compared to MIC of Crude extract of active actinomycete isolates, Terbinafine has a significant effect on the growth inhibition in all of the fungal Dermatophytes and then griseofulvin, ketoconazole and fluconazole are in the next rank, respectively. Keywords: Actinomycetes Crude Extract, Microsporum Canis, Microsporum Gypseum, Terbinafine
Asghar Farghi Yamchi , Mansour Dabirzadeh , Abdolhossein Miri,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct-2016 2016)


       Background and Objective: Leishmania major is a flagellate protozoan parasite causing cutaneous leishmaniasis. Although pentavalent antimony compounds are the first-line drugs for leishmaniasis, their application is often accompanied by numerous limitations and side effects. Therefore, it is necessary to seek drugs of herbal origin that have fast-acting benefits and few side effects without resistance. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of methanolic extract of Arctiul lappa root on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. major.

       Methods: This experimental study evaluated the effects of 10, 100, 500, and 1000 µg/ml of A. lappa root methanol extract on L. major promastigotes using direct cell counting and MTT assay. The mean number of amastigotes in infected macrophages was calculated after 24 and 48 hours.

       Results: The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of A. lappa root methanolic extract was 131.25 µg/ml after 24 hours. The mean number of amastigotes in macrophages after 24 hours in the control group and in the A. lappa group with concentrations of 500 and 1000 µg/ml were 3.52, 2.02, and 1.27, respectively.

        Conclusion: The results show that the methanolic extract of A. lappa root has anti-leishmanial effects on the promastigotes and amastigotes of L. major in vitro.

        Keywords: Leishmania Major, Amastigotes, Promastigotes, Arctium.

Hamed Noormohammadi , Yahya Maroufi , Mansour Dabirzadeh , Abdolhossein Miri ,
Volume 11, Issue 6 (Nov - Dec 2017)

            Background and Objectives: Leishmaniasis is a public health problem caused by the protozoan Leishmania. Pentavalent antimonials are currently used for treatment of leishmaniasis, but they have serious side effects. Nerium oleander L. has been used in traditional medicine due to its various health-protective properties. This study aimed to investigate anti-leishmanial activity of N. oleander L. leaves extract against Leishmania major promastigotes and amastigotes in vitro.
            Methods: L. major promastigotes were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium supplied with 10% fetal bovine serum. Different concentrations were prepared from the extract and added to L. major promastigotes seeded in 96-well plates. Viability percentage was evaluated by direct counting and MTT assay after 24, 48 and 72 hours. To investigate the cytotoxic effect of N. oleander L. on L. major amastigotes, the plant extract was added to amastigotes cultured in intraperitoneal macrophages. The mean number of amastigotes was calculated by direct counting after 24 and 48 hours.
             Results: All concentrations of the extract significantly reduced the viability of promastigotes when compared with the controls. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration was estimated to be 22.21 µg/ml after 24 hours. Percentage of cytotoxicity in amastigotes exposed to 20 μg/ml of the extract was 53.61% and 53.27% after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. In addition, percentage of cytotoxicity in amastigotes exposed to 80 μg/ml of the N. oleander L. extract was 53.77% and 55.48% after 24 and 48 hours, respectively.
            Conclusion: The N. oleander L. extract exerts anti-leishmanial activity on L. major promastigotes in a time- and dose-dependent manner.
             Keywords: Leishmania major, Nerium.

Shima Kazemi , Monir Doudi , Gholm Reza Amiri ,
Volume 11, Issue 6 (Nov - Dec 2017)

           Background and Objectives: Development of ecofriendly processes for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology. Microorganisms such as bacteria could be suitable candidates for bioproduction of nanoparticles due to their simplicity and high compatibility with the environment. The aim of this study was to use bacteria isolates from the effluent of wastewater treatment plants to produce silver nanoparticles.
         Methods: For identifying silver-resistant microorganisms, we used the agar diffusion method using PHG II medium containing 0.5 mM silver to determine minimum inhibitory concentration. Bacterial identification was done with biochemical testing and polymerase chain reaction (colony PCR). Finally, silver nanoparticles were produced in the desired bacteria, and the properties of these nanoparticles were studied.
         Results: We found five silver-resistant bacteria among which Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain MS8 showed the highest resistance (MIC= 6 mM). The bacterium was able to synthesize silver nanoparticles in spherical shapes. The results obtained from visual observations using UV-VIS, TEM and XRD showed that the bacterium was able to reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles with maximum size of 20 nm.
Conclusion: Based on our findings, this bacterium could be useful for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles.
          KEYWORDS: Bacteria, Biosynthesis, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. 

Maryam Kouhkan, Miri Mahmoody, Jabbar Khalafy, Sima Pourali, Nasser Samadi,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (Mar-Apr 2020)

             Background and objectives: Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to global public health. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics are the most important contributing factors to development of antibiotic resistance. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify and discover new compounds against drug-resistant microorganisms. We have previously synthesized new series of 3-substituted 5H-(1,2,4)triazolo(3chr('39'),4chr('39'):2,3) (1,3,4)thiadiazino(5,6-b)quinoxaline derivatives (4a-4f). Here, we evaluate the antimicrobial activity of these derivatives against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei.
             Methods: The agar well diffusion and agar dilution methods were used for determining inhibition zone diameter and minimum inhibitory concentration during preliminary evaluation of antimicrobial activity.
             Results: All synthesized compounds exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity against the tested microorganisms.
             Conclusion: Our findings indicate the antimicrobial potential of the six novel synthetic triazolo thiadiazin quinoxaline compounds.
             Keywords: Antimicrobial, Anti-bacterial agents, Antifungal agents, Triazolo, Thiadiazin, Quinoxaline.

Roghayeh Norouzi, Sajjad Jafari, Haniyeh Meshkati, Fahimeh Bagheri Amiri, Abolghasem Siyadatpanah,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (Jan-Feb 2021)

Background and objectives: Head louse, also known as Pediculus humanus capitis, is an obligate ectoparasite that is a distributed all around the world. The aim of present study was to determine the prevalence of head lice infestation in primary school students in Tabriz, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
Methods: Overall, 3,032 students (1,515 boys and 1,517 girls) from 33 primary schools in Tabriz were selected via multi-stage cluster sampling in 2018. The students were examined individually and privately by experts. Head lice infestation was confirmed by detecting adult or nymph or nits less than 1 cm from base of hair. Data analysis was carried out in SPSS software package (version 23). Association of participants’ characteristics with pediculosis infestation was evaluated using logistic regression and chi-square test at significance level of 0.05. 
Results: Head lice infestation was present in 130 (4.29%) students, while the prevalence of this condition was higher in girls (2.11%) than in boys. The highest prevalence (6.05 %) was observed in children age 6 years old regardless of gender. The rate of head lice infestation was lowest among students aged ≥12 years (3.17%). There was a significant relationship between head louse infestation and parent’s occupation, family size, the frequency of combing and hair style.
Conclusion: Although the prevalence of head lice infestation in Tabriz is relatively low, screening and treating schoolchildren should be done continuously in order to reduce the infestation rate.

Noosha Amiri, Mahtab Moazzami, Ali Yaghoubi,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (Jul-Aug 2021)

Background and objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the centralnervous system that can be tracked through biomarkers of disease status. The present study aimed to examine effect of eight weeks of resistance training on serum levels of neurofilament light chain and tau protein in women with multiple sclerosis (MS).
Methods: The study population consisted of 24 women with MS (aged 25 to 40 years) in Bojnourd (Iran) with expanded disability status scale score of 2-5. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of resistance training (n=12) and control (n=12). The training group performed 45-60 minutes of resistance training, three sessions a week for eight weeks. The control group did not partake in sports activity. Blood samples were taken 24 hours before the first session and 48 hours after the last training session. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze data at a significance level of 0.05.
Results: The eight-week resistance training intervention significantly decreased serum level of tau protein but had no significant effect on serum level of neurofilamet light chain.
Conclusion: According to the research results, eight weeks of resistance training could have favorable effects on serum level of tau protein in MS patients.

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