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Showing 24 results for Hashemi

H Davoodi, S R Hashemi, H F Seow, M Ghorbani,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (Autumn – Winter 2010[PERSIAN] 2009)

Abstract Background and objectives: Paraffin-embedded tissues and clinical samples are a valuable resource for molecular genetic studies, but the extraction of high-quality genomic DNA from this tissues is still a problematic issue. In the Present study, the efficiency of two DNA extraction protocols, a commercial kit and a traditional method based on heating and K Proteinase was compared. Material and Methods: Fifty paraffin-embedded blocks of colon cancer tissues (more than 5 years old) were used to compare two methods of DNA extraction. DNA was extracted by traditional method using heat and commercial DNA extraction (Qiagen kit) method. Then the purity and concentration of extracted DNA were measured by Spectrophotometer. Two sequences of TLR4 “The most important receptors in innate immunity” were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. SH-1 ‘188bp’ and SH-2 ‘124bp’ were amplified and then the products were separated on a 2% agarose gel. Results: The results show that the yield of DNA by traditional method (297 mg/ml) is significantly (p<0.01) higher than Commercial kit (176mg/ ml). But traditional method has the lower OD ratio (1.2) Compared to Commercial method. The Amplification of the TLR4 gene sequences is more successful by the traditional method (p<0.01) compared with commercial method. The length of the sequence affects on the results of PCR in that short sequence is amplified more successful compared to the long sequence. Conclusion: The traditional method is more successful in PCR amplification and also simple and cheap. Therefore, we recommend using this method for DNA extraction taken from the paraffin-embedded blocks with more than 5 years old and selecting shorter sequence for better amplification in PCR. Key words: DNA Extraction, paraffin embedded tissue, PCR
S M Hashemi, A Nasrollahi Omra, Hr Pordeli, A Hosenian,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (Autumn – Winter 2011[PERSIAN] 2010)

Abstract Bachground and objectives:Streptomyces is the most important genus in Actinomycetes family.The Streptomycetes are widely used in industry producing numerous chemical compounds including antibiotics, enzymes and anti- tumor agents. The aim of this study was to isolate soil-borne Streptomyces producing antimicrobial substances from soil of Golestan province of Iran and to survey anti-fungal metabolities produced by this organism. Material and Methods:In this study various soil samples were collected: ( forest areas of Naharkhoran in Gorgan and Kordkuy’s Derazno, Aghala’s deserts and agriculture lands of Aliabad ) were cultured on Actinomycet isolation agar and Starch casein agar were identified and purified by morphology and biochemistry tests. The activity of isolated Streptomyses against:Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus, Candida albicans and Malasesia fur fur were studied by Agar Diffusion. Results:Of 120 samples, 24 are Streptomyces(20%) .The frequency of Streptomyces are reported in Aghala (10,41.6%),Derzno (8,33.3%) ,Nahar khoran(4,16.6%) and Aliabad(2,8.3%).Of 24 isolated Sterptomyses,two isolates have strong anti-fungal and six of them have moderate effect.We also see Streptomyses,isolated from desert area, have higher anti-fungal activity. Conclusion:It is recommended two isolated of Streptomyses be identified ana purified. Key words:Streptomyces , antifungal activities, antibiotic

Nasrolahi Omran A, Bay A, Poorshamsian Kh, Karimi Kh, Hashemi M, Maghsodlo B,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (spring-summer[PERSIAN] 2011)

Abstract Background and objectives: Microbial, physical and chemical properties of drinking water, considering type and quantity of the drinking water, are the factors for determining the acceptability of water. The effect of each of the above components on increasing the quality of water or threatening the health of consumers is also considerable. We aimed to investigate the trace amounts of microbial, physical and chemical parameters of drinking water in Gorgan, comparing to national and international standard. Material and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 50 samples were taken, per month, from four pilot stations in urban water network of Gorgan during one year (2009- 2010). We used instant sampling and performed Enumeration of Coliforms in water culture with most probable number (MPN).Samples taken from the stations during the month were investigated in two general categories of device test and heading-meter. All experiments were performed using standard reference method. Results: of 598 water samples 551 (92.2%) have not Coliforms, 47 (7.8%) contain Coliforms and 16 (2.7%) of them have thermo-tolerant Coliforms. Mean water hardness is 413mg/L, base on carbonate calcium. The amount of fluoride about 0.35 mg and the residual chlorine about 0.6 mg is less than national standard amount. Conclusion: The results show that Gorgan water network is, in view of microbial contamination, safe during almost all days. All the tested samples in terms of physical and chemical parameters are in the range of nation and international standards. Hardness of drinking water of Gorgan is one of the highest. Key words: Bacteriological, Physiochemical, Drinking Water, Gorgan.
Ma Mansourighiasi, A Nasrollahiomran, M Hashemi, P Rajab Zadekanafi, M Jahangiri Rad Manjili,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (spring[PERSIAN] 2013)

Abstract Background and Objective:Staphylococcusaureus is one of the important factors causing nosocomial infections. Typically 25-30 percent of healthy people carry the bacteria in their anterior nasal cavity. The physicians(50%), nurses (70%) and hospital staff (90%) are the carriers of this bacteria, leading to the infection of inpatients. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus strains to vancomycin and methicillin has brought about several problems in treatment of the infections caused by Staphylococcus strains. Hence, we aimed to study the frequency of staphylococcus aureus carriers and resistance pattern among medical personnel of the surgical ward in ShahidRajaee hospital, Tonekabon. Material and Methods: this analytic-descriptive study was conducted on the samples taken from nasal carriage of medical staff of surgical ward (N=120). Antibiotic- resistant of Staphylococcus strains was assessed by antibiogram and disk diffusion (DAD), in accordance with CLSI standards. Results: of 34 (28.33%) who are nasal carriers of staphylococcus, 12 are over 30 years old and 24 under 30. Based on antibiogram, 1.97% of specimens are sensitive to Gentamicin and Co-trimoxazole, 1.94% to Ciprofloxacin, 2.88% to Vancomycin and 6.20% to Methicillin. In addition, 100% of specimens are resistant to Ampicillin, 1.97% to Penicillin and 2.88% to Amoxicillin. Four isolates areresistant,both to methicillin and vancomycin. Conclusion:In this study, the spectrum of S. aureus resistant and sensitive strains to some antibiotics is similar to other studies, but a dramatic increase is seen in the rate of MRSA and non-susceptible cases to vancomycin. The Effectiveness of Penicillin, Amoxicillin and Ampicillin is still very low on S. aureus samples. Key words: Prevalance Resistance Pattern, Staphylococcus aureus, Medical Staff, Nasal Cavity, Tonekabon
J Hashemi, J Asadi, T Amiriani, S Beshrat, Gh Roshandel, Hr Joshaghani,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (spring[PERSIAN] 2013)

Abstract Background and objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases. It is a functional bowel disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain and alternation of bowel habits with no structural abnormality. The prevalence of this disease was estimated 10-20 percent in the world. However, the cause of IBS is still unknown. Regarding to intestinal absorption disorder of nutrients, the malabsorption of vitamin may occur. The aim of this study is to evaluate serum levels of vitamins A and E in IBS patients. Materials & Methods: This case - control study was done on 94 patients whom their IBS disease were confirmed by a gastroenterologist in Golestan province. The control group was selected from healthy people, who didn't show any signs of digestive problems in past two years. The age and sex were matched with the cases group. Using HPLC method, Fasting blood samples were collected .Followed by measurement of Serum levels of vitamins A and E. Results: the meanserum levels of vitamin A and E in patients and control group were 57.0 ± 114.8μg / dl and23.8 ± 55.9 μg / dl, and 0.50 ± 0.24 mg / dl and 1.93 ± 1.86 mg / dl, respectively. (P <0.05). in men, the deficiency of Vitamin A and E, were7.70 and 7.10 percent and 6.76 and 3.7 in women. (P <0.05).In general, 1.1percent of IBS patients showed Vitamin A deficiency and 93.6 percent of them had vitamin E deficiency (P <0.05). Conclusion: In this study, a significant decrease in vitamin E levels was observed in patients with IBS. Due to antioxidant activity of vitamin E, the deficiency of this Vitamin, can increase the oxidative factors leading to intestinal damages and it is expected to decrease the amount of vitamins, subsequently Keywords: Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Gorgan
A Tahamtan, A Moradi, A Ghaemi, M Kelishadi, H Ghafari, P Hashemi, A Tabarraei,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (summer[PERSIAN] 2013)

Abstract Background & Objective: Hepatitis E virus is one of the most common causes of acute infection in adults. Pregnant and transplant patients are more in risk of HEV infection. Fecal-oral is the main route of HEV transmission but recently transmission by blood transfusion has been observed. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of HEV-Ab in hemodialysis patients in Gorgan, Iran. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, we investigated 150 hemodialysis patients of Panje Azar hospital in Gorgan. These patients were evaluated for the presence of HEV total Ab by ELISA method. Results: of 150, 6 patients (4%) are positive for HEV-Ab. There has been no significant relation between anti HEV Ab and variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, duration and number of hemodialysis in a week and (P>0.05). Conclusion: This study, which is the first report from this area, show that the lower prevalence of anti HEV Ab in hemodialysis patients in comparison with pregnant and childbearing age women. Keywords: Hepatitis E Hemodialysis Elisa Gorgan
Hr Pordeli, Sj Hashemi Hazaveh, M Jamshidian, M Bayat,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (summer[PERSIAN] 2013)

Abstract Background and objective: Soil bacteria, particularly Bacillus genus have the potential of producing a range of bioactive substances with antimicrobial and antifungal properties. They have the ability to produce hundreds of active and effective biologic compound against microorganisms. Therefore, it seems to be a proper candidate in the biocontrol of fungal pathogenesis. Material & Methods: In this study, soil samples were collected from different parts of Gorgan in order to isolate Bacillus and to determine their antifungal activity against T.mentagrophytes. The Isolates that had the highest antifungal effects were analyzed by PCR and 16s rRNA sequencing. Results: of 54 strains, 14 have antifungal activity. The Isolates, S4 and S12, identified as B.cereus and B.thuringiensis respectively show the highest antidermatofit effect. These isolates based on 16s rRNA sequence analysis show 97% homology with Bacillus cereusstrain KU4 and Bacillus thuringiensisstrain ucsc27. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that the soil Bacilli have biocontrol potential against dermatophytic agents such as T.mentagrophytes. Keywords: Antifungal effects, Bacillus, Rhizospheric soil, T.mentagrophytes
M Eramabadi, K Tadayon, N Mosavari, R Keshavarz, R Banihashemi, R Ghaderi, M Sekhavati, M Ahmadi, P Eramabadi, E Khodaverdi Daryan,
Volume 7, Issue 5 (supplement Issue( Bacteriology)[PERSIAN] 2014)

Abstract Background and Objective: A high level of homogeneity observed within all bacteria in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex makes a property that seriously challenges traditional biochemical-based identification methods of these pathogens in the laboratory. The work presented here was conducted to characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in Golestan, Northern Iran. Material and Methods: Between 2008 and 2010, 42 mycobacterial isolates were collected from clinical tuberculosis-suspected patients in Golestan province. The isolates were sub-cultured on fresh Mycobacterium-specific culture media including glycerinated and pyruvated Lowenstein-Jensen slopes. The isolates were subsequently subjected to a PCR-based identification scheme coined Huard-Warren method. This strategy consisted of three individual algorithms namely, 16SrRNA RV typing (Rv0577, Rv3877.8, Rv1970, Rv3120, Rv1510 and IS1561) and RD typing (RD1, RD 4, RD9 and RD12). Results: All isolates were proved to be M. tuberculosis. Furthermore, none of the patients were being infected with any other member of the M. tuberculosis complex or simultaneously co-infected with two mycobacteria. This fundamental observation was independently obtained by specific culture media, RV typing and also RD typing. Conclusion: Considering the fact that cattle and sheep farming play an important role in the economy of the region, absence of Mycobacterium bovis in the studied isolates can be unexpected to some extent. Huard-Warren which is a simple and cost-effective identification method can be used in both reference and regional laboratory for differential diagnosis of tuberculosis. Keywords: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex, Huard-WarrenMethod, 16SrRNA, Golestan Province, RD Typing, RV Typing
F Habibi Nava, M Hashemi Karouei, Sh Shafahi,
Volume 7, Issue 5 (supplement Issue( Bacteriology)[PERSIAN] 2014)

Abstract Background and Objective: Resistance of Helicobacter Pylori (H. pylori) to antibiotics is the main cause of relapse into Helcobacterial infections. With the use of several antibiotics that have synergistic effect, we can inhibit this antibiotic resistance. Thus, we aimed at determining resistance patterns and assessing the synergy of combining multiple antibiotics on H. pylori. Material and Methods: Biopsy specimens were taken from 100 patients with gastric ulcer referred to Imam Reza hospital in Amol, north of Iran. After isolation and identification of H. Pylori, antibiogram was performed with different antibiotic disks containing one antibiotic, a combination of two antibiotics (metronidazole + clarithromycin) and three antibiotics (metronidazole + Claritromycin + Ciprofloxacin). Results: In this study, H. pylori were isolated from 53 (53%) biopsy specimens. Of these, 49 (5.92%) were resistant to metronidazole, 14 (26%) to amoxicillin, 10 (19%) to clarithromycin, 7 (13%) to tetracycline, 13 (5/24%) to furazolidone and 7 (13%) to ciprofloxacin. In survey of synergistic effect, an increase in inhibition zone diameter around of combined disks was seen up to 5mm compared to the most effective antibiotic. Conclusion: The inhibition zone diameter of discs containing two and three antibiotics was large, in comparison with one antibiotic. Key words: H. Pylori Antibiotic Resistance Synergy Effect
T Ghelich, M Hashemi Karouei, I Gholampor Azizi,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (summer 2014[PERSIAN] 2014)

Abstract Background and Objective: Because of increased resistance to antibiotics, side effects of chemical drugs and importance of medicinal plants, we aimed to assess the antibacterial effects of methanolic extract of the Polygonumbistorta plant on the E. coli (ATCC 15224), Ps. aeruginosa (ATCC 25619), B. subtilis (ATCC 6633) and Stap. Aureus (ATCC 25923). Material and Methods: After preparing the extract, its antibacterial effect was assessed via gel diffusion method, using disk / well diffusion methods to determine MIC and MBC Results: MIC of methanolic extract was 78 µg/ml for E. coli, 63×103 µg/ml for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 39 µg/ml for Bacillus subtilis and 31×102 µg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus Conclusion: In spite of resistance of gram-negative bacteria to chemical agents, polygonum bistorta methanolic extract could inhibit the growth of E.coli and P. aeruginosa. Key words: Antibacterial, Bistorta, Escherichia Coli, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
N Hashemi, Y Yazdani,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (Autumn[PERSIAN] 2014)

Abstract Background and Objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease. Mucosal feeding of myelin basic protein binding to the cholera toxin B subunit can reduce the intensity of the immune response in MS patients. Expression system, the domain composition of the fusion protein, accessibility of two domains, codon adaptation index (CAI) and GC contents are very important for the large scale production of fusion protein. Material and Methods: we used DNA2, PSIPRED and ProtParam softwares for designing the best form to produce fusion protein. Moreover, the correct open reading frame of myelin basic protein was also considered. First the coding sequence was verified and then synthesized. For confirmation of the recombinant vector, PCR test was carried out using T7 primers. Finally it was inserted into the cloning site of pET28 expression vector. Results: After coding optimization, the CAI rate was increased from 64 % to 80% and GC content from 41 % to 49%. The presence of a band near 700bp resulted from PCR amplification test demonstrates the correct cloning of recombinant vectors in the cloning site of pET28 expression vector. Conclusion: According to software and experimental analysis, the designed sequence probably in the best form could be used for production of recombinant protein. Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, Cholera Toxin, Myelin Basic Protein
Pashaie Naghadeh, A, Dabirzadeh, M, Davoodi, T, Hashemi, M,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (may,jun 2015[PERSIAN] 2015)


Background and objective: Bioindicators of drinking water are always influenced by physical and chemical factors such as turbidity and chlorine.  Considering the assessment of drinking water quality is based on residual chlorine, E.coli, heterotrophic bacteria and turbidity.  We aimed to evaluate the effect of pH, chlorine residual and turbidity on the microbial bioindicators.

Material and methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, 324 and 32 water samples were collected from rural and urban water distribution network of Aq Qala city in 2013, respectively. All steps were performed according to standard methods.

Results: In rural water supply, 5%, 9% and 33% of the samples were contaminated with fecal coliform, fecal streptococcus and the heterotrophic more than 500CFU / ml. In urban network, coliform contamination was not seen and other bioindicators were less than those of rural networks were. Turbidity of above 5 NTU in urban and rural samples was 3 and 9 percent, respectively. Bioindicators had significant relationship with residual chlorine, fecal coliform bacteria with pH and turbidity with heterotrophic bacteria (P ≤0.05).

Conclusion: The presence of fecal streptococcus bacteria in some samples without fecal coliform cannot confirm the safety of drinking water.  Microbial contamination in the presence of residual chlorine implies that just chlorination   is not enough for having healthy water.

Keywords: Chlorine, Turbidity, Biological Factors, Drinking water

Hashemi, M, Amin Zare, M, Naghibi, S, Raeisi, M, Hasanzad Azar, H,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (Jul,Aug2015[PERSIAN] 2015)


Background and Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal effect and antioxidant property of Salvia officinalis, Mentha piperita and Mentha Longifolia.

Material and Methods: At first, chemical analysis of essential oils was determined using GC/MS. Then the antibacterial and antifungal effect of tested essential oils on L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, S. typhimurium and E. coli and two fungal strains including A. niger and A. flavus were determined using disk diffusion agar and broth microdilution methods.  The antioxidant property of essential oils was evaluated using DPPH assay.

Results: Linalool (14.38%), l. menthone (19.03%) and δ-terpinene (21.78%) were the major components of Salvia officinalis, Mentha piperita and Mentha Longifolia, respectively. all tested essential oils had antibacterial effect on foodborne pathogens, which was comparable with tetracycline’s effect. In addition, all essences had appropriate antioxidant potential compared with BHT.

Conclusion: based on the results, Salvia officinalis, Mentha piperita and Mentha Longifolia can be introduced as appropriate natural preservatives.

Keywords: Salvia officinalis; Mentha piperita; Mentha Longifolia, Antibacterial Agents.

Hamid Reza Joshaghani , Saeid Parvizi , Khodaberdi Kalavi , Naser Behnampour, Hadi Joshaghani , Nader Hashemi, Sahar Alijanpour,
Volume 9, Issue 5 (Nov,Dec-2015 2015)


        Background and Objective: Normal hemoglobin (Hb) is formed of a heme group and a protein group known as globin. Globin is made of four polypeptide chains and in hemoglobinopathies, the structure of one of these four polypeptide chain becomes abnormal. Cellulose acetate method is a common way to differentiate haemoglobinopathies. Inability to identify the components of Hb low concentrations and incapability to isolate all Hb types are among the disadvantages of this method. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in the North of Iran by capillary electrophoresis method.

      Methods: All patients with suspected hemoglobinopathies, referred by physicians for electrophoresis, have been studied in a private center in the city of Gorgan, Iran. The level of HbA2, HbA, HbF and other Hb was recorded.

       Results: Overall, 725 blood samples were analyzed using the capillary method. HbE was reported in 2 patients, HbH was observed in 2 patients and Hb Barts was reported in 3 patients. Using the capillary method, among patients with the SDG area, only 4 of 38 (10.52%) had HbS and the majority of them (89.48%) had HbD.

      Conclusion: HbD is the most common hemoglobinopathy in the North of Iran.

        Keywords: Hemoglobinopathy; hemoglobin D; Capillary Electrophoresis; Iran

Ali Mohammadi , Maryam Hashemi , Masoud Hosseini ,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (Mar,Apr2016 2016)

Background and Objective: Considering the increasing tendency of public towards green consumption and the dangers of artificial additives, this study aimed to assess antibacterial activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Mentha piperita L., Zataria multiflora Boiss and Thymus vulgaris against three important pathogenic and spoilage bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Erwinia carotovora and Escherichia coli).

  • After obtaining the essential oils from Magnolia Co., their antimicrobial activity was assessed using broth microdilution method by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50, MIC90) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). All experiments were performed in triplicate and the data were analyzed using the GraphPad software and Duncanchr('39')s new multiple range test.
  • All essential oils showed antimicrobial activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Increasing the concentration of essential oils from 0.01% to 4% (v/v) significantly enhancing the antibacterial activity. The statistical calculations and comparison of data showed that the essential oils of C. zeylanicum and Z. multiflora performed better compared to  the other two essential oils, due to having lower values of MIC50 (≤0.1%), MIC90 (≤0.4%) and MBC (≤1%) (P <0.05).
  • Considering the high antimicrobial activity of essential oils of C. zeylanicum and Z. multiflora, they can be used as effective food additives with fewer side effects. However, further studies are being conducted on the effectiveness of essential oils on the growth of other microorganisms and their results will be published soon.
  • Essential Oils, Antimicrobial, Pathogenic Bacteria, Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, Zataria Multiflora Boiss.

Mansour Dabirzadeh , Abbas Pashaie Neghadeh , Tahere Davoodi , Mohammad Hashemi ,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (Mar,Apr2016 2016)


         Background and Objective: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease and a health problem in different parts of Iran, especially two cities of Mashhad and Chabahar. Due to morphological similarities of most Leishmania species and difference in reservoirs of L. major and L. tropica, it is necessary to determine the parasite specie to combat the disease. Thus, this study used gene sequencing and genotyping of 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) to differentiate the two species of Leishmania.

         Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, microscope slides and cultures were prepared from 43 patients suspected of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Chabahar and Mashhad. PCR was performed after genomic DNA extraction and then PCR products were sequenced and analyzed.

        Results: Of the 43 patients studied, 32 direct smear and culture (74.4%) were positive and 11 (25.6%) showed negative results, and were therefore excluded from the study. Using HSP70-specific primers, 1962 bp and 1152bp bands were observed for HSP70 of L. major in Chabahar and L. tropica in Mashhad, respectively. Based on the results, there were 18 nucleotide differences between HSP70 of L. major in Chabahar and L. tropica in Mashhad.

         Conclusion: Due to the morphological similarities between Leishmania species and inability to differentiate species through parasitological methods, the HSP70 gene can be used for identification of the species, and prevention and treatment of the disease.


Esmaeil Samadian, Ayyoob Khosravi , Roghaye Gharae, Mostafa Mir, Seyed Ahmad Sajjadi , Fahimeh Mohammad Abadi, Nader Hashemi, Sahar Alijanpour, Hamid Reza Joshaghani,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (May-Jun 2016 2016)


          Background and Objective: Genetic variations in the gene encoding endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme affect the susceptibility to cardiovascular disease. Identification of the way these changes affect eNOS structure and function in laboratory conditions is difficult and time-consuming. Thus, it seems essential to perform bioinformatics studies prior to laboratory studies to find  the variants that are more important. This study aimed to predict the damaging effect of changes in the coding region of eNOS using homology- and structure-based algorithms (SIFT and PolyPhen).

           Methods: First, the single nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding region (cSNPs) of the human eNOS gene were extracted from dbSNP. Resulting amino acid changes were reported as primary data required for the study. Then, position and type of amino acid changes along with the complete amino acid sequence were separately entered into the SIFT and PolyPhen tools for analysis.

         Results: Of 144 single nucleotide changes, 38 changes by the SIFT, 47 changes by the PolyPhen and 18 amino acid substitutions by both tools were predicted as damaging.

          Conclusion: It is predicted that 18 amino acid changes may have damaging phenotypic effects on the structure of the eNOS enzyme that may affect its performance by potentially affecting the enzyme’s various functional regions. Therefore, computational prediction of potentially damaging nsSNPs and prioritizing amino acid changes may be useful for investigating protein performance using targeted re-sequencing and gene mutagenesis experiments.


Mohammad Mohammad Mostakhdem Hashemi , Afsaneh Tabandeh , Hamidreza Tajari , Nasser Behnampour, Azadeh Aliarab, Hamid Reza Joshaghani,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (Jul-Aug 2016 2016)


        Background and Objectives: sperm motility mainly depends on aerobic glycolysis, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a key enzyme in the last step of this process. On the other hand, fructose is considered as the main energy source for sperm motility. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the LDH activity and fructose levels and their correlation with sperm motion parameters in normospermic and asthenozospermic males.

       Methods: In this case-control study, 96 normospermic and 96 asthenozospermic males were enrolled.  The semen samples were analyzed by computer assisted semen analysis to identify sperm motion parameters. Seminal plasma fructose levels were measured using Seliwanoffchr('39')s test. LDH activity in the samples was evaluated using commercially available kits. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 16).

       Results: The levels of LDH activity and fructose concentration were not different between the two groups. There was no correlation found between LDH activity and fructose concentration or sperm motility parameters. However, LDH was significantly correlated with sperm concentration in both groups.

      Conclusion: Although LDH activity and fructose levels seem to be influenced by sperm motility, other factors such as sperm concentration and total sperm count can also affect their seminal plasma levels. Thus, when the sperm concentrations are equal in study groups, the level of these factors are expected to be equal.

         Keywords: Lactate Dehydrogenase, Fructose, Sperm Motility, CASA.

Seyyede Zolaikha Hashemi Chashmi, Valiollah Dabidi Roshan, Sohail Azizi,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct-2016 2016)


       Background and Objective: Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective anticancer drug. It has been shown that  a short-term exercise performed prior to DOX-treatment has no effect on cardiotoxicity in young rats. In the present study, old and young rats were evaluated to determine the protective effects of pre-treatment with short-term exercise on DOX-induced oxidative damage in cardiac tissue.

        Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups of young and old, and later divided into three sub-groups of young+DOX, young+training+DOX, young+training+salin, old+DOX, old+training+DOX and old+training+salin. The training protocol included treadmill running for 25-39 min/day at 15-17 m/min, 5 days/week for three weeks. All treatments were carried out 24h after the last exercise bout. The rats were sacrificed 48h

 after DOX administration.

        Results: Although DOX injection significantly affected the cardiac tissue of old rats compared to young rats, pretreatment with endurance training in DOX-treated rats caused an increase in Heat shock protein (3.02% vs. 23.36) and superoxide dismutase (30.12% vs. 31.12), and a decrease in malondialdehyde (10.92% vs. 19.60) in both old and young rats.

         Conclusion: Although DOX-induced production of free radicals and cardiotoxicity in aged rats is more than that in young rats,  the short-term aerobic exercise reduced the damaging effects of free radicals in the old rats more than in young ones. The concentration of antioxidant enzymes also increases with exercise in the old rats compared to young rats.

          Keywords: Cardiotoxicity, Doxorubicin, Oxidative Stress, Aerobic Exercise.

Mishar Kelishadi , Mohammad Mojerloo, Pezhman Hashemi , Sobhan Samadi, Alijan Tabarraei,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (Jul-Aug 2017)

        Background and Objectives: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common viral cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of active CMV infection in hemodialysis patients in Gorgan, Iran.
        Methods: Plasma samples were obtained from 149 hemodialysis patients at Hemodialysis Unit of Panje-Azar Medical Centre in Gorgan, Iran. Presence of CMV-DNA in plasma samples was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers for highly conserved regions of major capsid protein gene of HCMV. In addition, level of CMV-IgM antibody was measured by serological testing. Demographic information and past medical history of patients were also recorded. Data was analyzed by SPSS software (version 18).
       Results: Total prevalence of CMV infection was 6.7% (10/149) among the patients receiving hemodialysis. CMV-DNA and anti-CMV IgM antibody were detected in 2.68% and 4.69%, of the samples, respectively. One case was found positive for both CMV-DNA and anti-CMV IgM antibody. CMV infection did not have any correlation with gender, age, ethnicity, duration of hemodialysis, and history of blood transfusion.
        Conclusion: A notable proportion of hemodialysis patients in Gorgan have active CMV infection. Accurate detection of these individuals is important for preventing infection spread, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Simultaneous diagnosis of CMV infection using serological testing and PCR assay could help reduce the risk of infection spread.
          Keywords: HCMV, Hemodialysis, PCR, Iran.

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