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Showing 7 results for Ghaffari

Ar Niazi, F Koohsar, F Ghaffarifar, H Ziaei-Hezarjaribi,, F Mesgarian, on Jorjani,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (summer 2014[PERSIAN] 2014)

Abstract Background and Objective: Culture, microscopic method is a gold standard method for identification of Lishmania parasite. The use of Molecular methods such as RT- PCR compared to microscopic methods has a higher sensitivity and specificity however, it is not widely used due to its expensive equipment and the time requested. The use of nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) method is highly valuable for diagnosis of live parasite because there is no need for to use Thermo cycler. We aimed to assess sensitivity and specificity of NASBA for molecular detection of cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Material and Methods: First, the RNA was extracted from 28 skin biopsies suspected cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Then, by means of specific primers designed for 18srRNA region, this region was amplified using NASBA isothemal amplification. To increase the sensitivity, the product was electroforesed in TBE (IX) buffer, using Syber Gold Flourecent probes. Using specific primers, RT- PCR was conducted on the samples too. Result: For diagnosis of Leishmania parasites, NASBA and RT-PCR had the sensitivity of 81% and 51%, respectively, and specificity of 100%. Conclusion: NASBA isothermal method with high sensitivity and specificity can be applied for identification of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Keywords: Cutaneous Leishmanisis, NASBA, 18S rRNA
H Ghaffari, A Moradi, A Ghaemi, N Javid, M Talkhabifard, H Naziri, A Tabaraei,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (Autumn[PERSIAN] 2014)

Background and Objective: Cytomegalovirus (CMV), one of the most common opportunistic pathogens in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), can cause the diseases such as encephalitis, pneumonia, and chorioretinitis. This study aimed at molecular studying of CMV infection in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Material and Methods: In this study, 50 venous blood samples from HIV-infected individuals were taken. Patients were divided into two categories: patients under treatment with and without antiretroviral drugs. Plasma were separated from blood samples and examined for the presence of cytomegalovirus genome by PCR. Material and Methods: this study was conducted on 50 blood samples from HIV-infected individuals, and plasma was separated and examined for the presence of cytomegalovirus genome by PCR. Patients were divided into two group of under treatment with and without antiretroviral drugs. Results: Of 50, 28 (% 56) were men and 22 (% 44) were women. CMV genome was identified in 8 samples (16%), and the molecular prevalence of CMV infection was 21.4% (n= 6) in males and 9.1% (n = 2) in females. Conclusion: Given the frequency of Cytomegalovirus Active Infection in HIV-infected individuals under antiretroviral therapy, we should be careful about the treatment of Cytomegalovirus Active Infection. Keywords: Active Infection, Cytomegalovirus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Shiraz, PCR
Mohammadzadeh, Ghorban , Fatemeh Karimpour, Mohammad Ali Ghaffari, Alireza Kheirollah, Azadeh Saki,
Volume 9, Issue 5 (Nov,Dec-2015 2015)


     Background and Objective: Diabetes mellitus is the most common risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) TaqIB polymorphism is associated with changes in lipid profile and may be a risk factor for CAD in patients with diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the association of CETP TaqIB polymorphism with CAD in patients with type 2 diabetes.

     Methods: In this case-control study, 292 diabetic patients were divided into two groups based on angiography reports (150 participants with normal angiogram as the control group and 142 participants with more than 50% stenosis of at least one coronary artery as the case group). The CETP TaqIB genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP analysis. Fasting blood glucose was measured using glucose oxidase and lipid profile (triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol) by an enzymatic method.

       Results: There was no significant difference in the frequency of genotypes and alleles between the case group and controls (the control group: B1B1, 17.3%; B1B2, 63.3%; and B2B2, 19.3%; the case group: B1B1, 18.3%; B1B2, 64.1%; and B2B2, 17.6%) (P=0.92). In the control group, heterozygous participants (genotype B1B2) had higher levels of cholesterol compared with other genotypes (B1B1 and B2B2). Also, the patients with genotype B1B2 had significantly higher weight (P=0.013).

       Conclusion: There is no significant correlation between CETP TaqIB polymorphism and the increased risk of coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

      Keywords: Cholesterol Ester Transfer Protein, Polymorphism, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Coronary Artery Disease

Ma Ghaffari , Gh Mohammadzadeh , M Rezazadeh , H Rashidi ,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (May-Jun 2016 2016)


         Background and Objective: Vitamins C and E are  the two main antioxidants involved in prevention of type 2 diabetes, by reducing oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamins C and E supplementation independently, on serum levels of insulin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and resistin in people with type 2 diabetes.

        Methods: In this study, 38 patients with type 2 diabetes (17 men and 21 women) received 1,000 mg/day vitamin C, and 40 patients with type 2 diabetes (21 men and 19 women) received 400 IU/day vitamin E orally. Fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were measured using enzymatic method. Hs-CRP was measured by immunoturbidimetric method, and serum insulin and resistin levels were measured by ELISA.

         Results: total cholesterol, triglycerides, hs-CRP, insulin and resistin significantly were reduced after vitamin C supplementation (P<0.001). Moreover, the level of total cholesterol (P =0.018), low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides and hs-CRP significantly changed after vitamin E supplementation (P=0.001).

          Conclusion: The daily intake of 1,000 mg of vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E may be useful in reducing diabetic complications by decreasing serum levels of hs-CRP and lipid profile in people with type 2 diabetes.


Seyyed Manuchehr Nourazarian , Mojtaba Ghaffarian , Homayun Dolatkhah ,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (May-Jun 2016 2016)


        Background and Objective: The relationship between diabetes mellitus and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases has been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid profile of epicardial adipose tissue in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with cardiovascular disease.

         Methods: In this study, 28 diabetic and 40 nondiabetic patients were evaluated. The epicardial adipose tissue and blood samples of patients were collected during surgery. Non‐esterified fatty acids and phospholipids were measured by the thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography.

         Results:  Saturated free fatty acids (12: 0) level was higher in diabetic patients compared to nondiabetic patients (P=0.038), while saturated free fatty acids (16: 0) was significantly lower in diabetics (P=0.011). Unsaturated fatty acid (20: 3n-9) was higher in nondiabetics compared to  diabetics (P=0.015). There was a significant decrease in level of monounsaturated fatty acids in diabetic patients. The epicardial adipose tissue of diabetics showed a significant increase in free fatty acid (18: 0) and conjugated linoleic acid levels, while there was a significant decrease in the level of free fatty acid (18: 1n-11). Level of epicardial omega-3 free fatty acid (20: 5 n-3) and 22: 6 n -3 was significantly reduced in these patients.

         Conclusion: Differences in the serum free fatty acid profile of the two groups may be due to differences in their diet, while changes in the fatty acid composition of epicardial adipose tissue in these two groups could be due to impaired metabolism of fatty acids such as uptake, movement and androgen synthesis as a result of diabetes. These changes increase the risk of developing atherosclerosis in diabetic patients.


Zeinab Nazari, Javad Ghaffari, Negar Ghaffari,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (May-Jun 2020)

Background and Objectives: Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is a virus of the Retroviridae family, which has infected more than 20 million people around the world. The study aimed to review the prevalence of HTLV infection in pregnant women. 
           Methods: We searched various databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar, SID, Magiran and Irandoc using the following keywords: HTLV-1, HTLV-2, Retroviridae, pregnancy, prevalence, incidence, women and female. Abstracts, short/brief reports as well as original and review articles published on HTLV-1 and/or HTLV-2 infection during pregnancy until October 2018 were included in the study.
           Results: We found five articles from Iran and 14 articles from other parts of the world on the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in pregnant women. Prevalence of HTLV-1 and or HTLV-2 was higher in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women in cities of Mashhad and Neyshabur, Razavi Khorasan Province (1.5 to 3.3 %), northeastern Iran, which are endemic areas of Iran for HTLV-1 infection. The incidence rate of HTLV-1 infection was 400-500 per 10,000 pregnant women in endemic areas of Japan. In Brazil, the rate of HTLV-1 infection in pregnant women was estimated to be 1.05%.
           Conclusion: The prevalence of HTLV-1 varies among pregnant women depending on residence in endemic or non-endemic areas for HTLV-1. In endemic areas, it is recommended to perform routine screening for HTLV-1 infection in the general population, especially pregnant women.

Mojtaba Raeisi, Kamal Mirkarimi, Behrooz Jannat, Bahman Rahimi Esboei, Abdol Sattar Pagheh, Zahra Mehrbakhsh, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar, Oghlniaz Jorjani, Masoud Foroutan,
Volume 14, Issue 4 (Jul-Aug 2020)

      Background and objectives: Leishmaniasis is a tropical disease caused by protozoan parasites from the genus Leishmania. In this study, we aimed at investigating the in vitro anti-leishmanial effect of essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis, Mentha pulegium, Foeniculum vulgare, Lippia citriodora and Pelargonium graveolens.
       Methods: The essential oils were prepared from freshly dried and powdered plants with steam-distilled water. Iranian strain of Leishmania promastigotes was cultured in RPMI medium and the inhibitory effects of different concentrations (25, 32, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml) of the essential oils were investigated at 24, 48 and 72 hours. The number of live parasites before and after treatment with the essential oils was counted by trypan blue 10% staining and using neobar lam.
      Results: The essential oils significantly decreased the number of promastigotes in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). However, the inhibitory effects of F. vulgare and R. officinalis essential oils were more profound compared to other essential oils. Moreover, concentrations of 500 and 1000 μg/ml of these two essential oils exerted equal and more anti-leishmanial potency compared to glucantime, the first-line drug used for treatment of leishmaniasis.
       Conclusion: Based on the results, it is recommended to evaluate the in vivo anti-leishmanial effects of the tested essential oils, particularly F. vulgare and R. officinalis.

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