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Showing 9 results for Fakhar

M Fakhar, E Ahmad Pour,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (spring[PERSIAN] 2013)

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) is a systemic infection disease that can be diagnosed by some invasive procedures such as splenic, liver biopsy or bone marrow aspiration, whichare determined as the gold standards for diagnosing of this disease. At present, a variety of noninvasive tests having different specificities and sensitivities are available for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Direct agglutination test (DAT) can be an appropriate and applicable method provided that proper antigens are prepared. The rapid rK39 strip test (for detection of antigen) can be used for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is suitable for acute forms of disease in the field. Other tests, such as rapid KATEX strip test (for detection of antigen) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which are recently recommended for diagnosis and prognosis of visceral leishmaniasis, are the simple, inexpensive and easily available under field conditions.This review article focuses on different, novel and current procedures for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Key words: Laboratory diagnosis,visceralleishmaniasis, Kala-azar,rk39, Katex, PCR
B Rahimi-Esboei, M Fakhar, A Ghorbani, M Pour Haji Baqer, As Paqeh, P Shahnasi, M Rezaei,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (summer[PERSIAN] 2013)

Abstract Background and Objective: Cercarial dermatitis (CD) or swimmer’s itch is a severe inflammatory reaction caused by penetration of the skin by avian and herbivorous schistosomes, esp genus Trichobilharzia. Since both intermediate and final host of this parasite exist in North of Iran, we aimed at determining the prevalence of cercarial dermatitis among paddy-field workers in Central areas of Mazandaran Province. Material and Methods: To perform this descriptive-cross sectional study, we refer to bird refuges of migrating water and Paddy-field around man-made ponds of Babol, Sari, Ghaemshahr and Savadkoh districts. The Hand and foot of the farmers were examined clinically for detection of infected people and their signs and symptoms were recorded on a sheet of paper. Results: Based on the results, 77.5 % of the workers suffer from CD. All of them are males and the majority of them are indigenous. Conclusion: High prevalence of Cercarial dermatitis among paddy-field workers led to a health dilemma. Thus, by increasing awareness of farmers, implementing suitable approaches, controlling the disease and sanitizing the contaminated areas can promote health situation. Key Words: Trichobilharzia Avian Schistosomiasis Cercaria Dermatitis Paddy-Field Workers Itch
H Bashi Zadeh Fakhar, R Faraji, M Ghane, M Jafarpour, B Ashoorizadeh,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (Autumn 2013)

Abstract Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV) plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital warts were tested by means of specific PCR and Pap smear from September 2010 to April 2011. Results: Out of 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women suffering genital warts, 37 samples (82.2%) are positive. Of 45 Pap smear samples, 13 (29%) are neoplasia and 32 (71%) normal. Conclusion: The difference between the results of PCR and Pap smear is due to low specification and sensitivity of Pap smear. Thus it is recommended using diagnostic PCR method in addition to Pap smear in order to promote the quality of screening in individuals with genital warts. Keywords: Human Papiloma Virus (HPV) Genital Warts Molecular (PCR) Pap Smear
B Rahimi-Esboei, A Pagheh, M Fakhar, S Pagheh, Y Dadimoghadam,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (Autumn[PERSIAN] 2014)

Abstract Background and Objective: The Outbreak of human parasitic diseases associated with the consumption of raw vegetables often occurs in both developing and developed countries. This study aimed to evaluate parasitic contamination of edible vegetables in Golestan Province. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the cities of Golestan Province for six months, 2012. The samples (N = 100) were randomly chosen among different vegetables (parsley, lettuce, radish, and cress), and examined for the presence of helminthic and protozoan parasitic contaminations following washing, centrifuging and sedimentation. Results: Thirty-seven (37%) were found to have parasitic contamination, and of these 30 (81.1%) and 7 (18.9%) were helminths and protozoa, respectively. The highest rate of contamination was detected in parsley (37.9%), and the lowest in radish (12.0%). Moreover, free living larva with 58.6% and Hymenolepis nana ova with 5.1% were the highest and lowest contaminated rates, respectively. Conclusion: Based on our results, consumed vegetables in Golestan Province is considered as a potential risk for some human parasitic infections. Keywords: Vegetable, Parasite, Parasitic Infections, Golestan Province
Mehdi Najm, Mahdi Fakhar,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (sep,Oct 2015 2015)


        Heavy metals have raised one of the most important problems in ecology and organisms life especially human being and animals. A variety of indicators including tissues of fish, birds and sediment have been used recently to measure the aquatic pollution with heavy metals. The aim of this study was to search the published articles in Iran and the world on the role of helminthic parasites as a bioindicator (biological indicators) in assessing the concentration of heavy metals. This study was a non-systematic review and data were collected from available databases such as, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus and Scientific Information Database (SID).Most studies showed that helminthic parasites(particularly acanthocephalan and cestoda) could be used as bioindicators in assessing the concentration of heavy metals. However, limited investigations were conducted on nematoda and trematoda parasites and limited information was available regarding heavy metal bioindicatorsin Iran.

             Keywords: Parasitology, Acanthocephala, Bioindicator, Heavy Metals

Nasrin Ramezani , Behnaz Vanaky , Nader Shakeri , Zahra Soltanian , Fatemeh Fakhari Rad , Zahra Shams ,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (Jan-Feb 2019)

           Background and Objectives: Diabetes is one of the most common diseases and a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown that regular exercise can affect apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity interval training on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax as important apoptosis factors in diabetic rats.
           Methods: After inducing diabetes in 20 male Wistar rats (weighing 250 ± 1.15 g), the rats were randomly divided into a control group and a training group. The training group performed high-intensity interval training five days a week for four weeks, and the control group did not perform any training. After the intervention, RNA was extracted and TCF mRNA was subjected to real time RT-PCR for measuring Bax and Bcl-2 expression in the heart tissue of diabetic rats. Data were analyzed by IBM SPSS Statistics V22 using independent t-test. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant.
           Results: The expression of Bcl-2 increased significantly and the expression of Bax decreased significantly after the four-week training intervention.
           Conclusion: The high-intensity interval training can have beneficial effects on the expression of apoptotic genes in rats with type 2 diabetes.
           Keywords: Bax, Bcl-2, High intensity interval training, Heart, Type 2 diabetes.

Masoud Soosaraei, Ahmad Daryani, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Mohamad Taghi Rahimi, Mahdi Fakhar, Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi, Mehdi Sharif,
Volume 14, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2020)

Background and objectives: Intestinal parasitic infections are a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. It is estimated that around 3.5 billion people are infected with intestinal parasites. Human intestinal parasites (HIP) are clinically important due to broad epidemiological distribution, reinfection and drug resistance. In the last decades, bioactive compounds from herbs were used against a wide variety of microorganisms including parasites. We aimed to perform a systematic review on studies on the effects of medicinal herbs on HIPs in Iran.
      Methods: Relevant scientific publications until April, 2015 were extracted from five English databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Ebsco, Science Direct and Scopus) and four Persian databases (Magiran, Irandoc, IranMedex and the Scientific Information Database).
      Results: A total of 18 papers and two dissertations met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 22 different plant extracts were used against Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium and Hymenolepis nana. Based on the results, the extracts could exert time- and dose-dependent inhibitory effects against the tested HIPs. Five plants types including Allium, Chenopodium botrys, Carum copticum, F. asafoetida and Artemisia annua were able to completely inhibit the tested parasites, while Thymus vulgaris and A. paradoxum showed the lowest inhibitory effect (7%).
      Conclusions: Given the findings, it is recommended to conduct in vivo studies on medicinal herbs with favorable in vitro effects against HIPs.

Mojtaba Chizari, Seyed Masoud Hosseini, Ali Mohammadi, Javad Fakhari, Mojtaba Mashhadi Mohammadzadeh-Vazifeh,
Volume 14, Issue 6 (Nov-Dec 2020)

Background and objectives: Dried Black Curd (DBC), also known as Gharahghorut (Persian), is a dairy product produced from curd of yogurt or doogh. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbial contamination of industrially and traditionally produced DBC in Iran.
Methods: Four DBC brands holding certification of the Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI), Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education (IMHME) and ISO were purchased from a market in Tehran, Iran. Microbial monitoring for presence of coliform, Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, mold and yeast was performed using different basic, enriched, selective and differential media including peptone water agar, MacCankey agar, blood agar and brain heart infusion agar, etc. according to the ISIRI standards (No.13299).
Results: None of the tested samples had microbial contamination. However, in one traditional DBC sample, the population of mold and yeast was higher than the acceptable level defined by the ISIRI standard.
Conclusion: We found no contamination with coagulase-positive S. aureus, E. coli and coliforms in four brands of traditionally and industrially produced DBC in Iran. This indicates that the hygienic practices designated by the IMHME are well-implemented in the industrial sector. However, the mold and yeast contamination in traditionally produced DBC should be prevented by applying hygienic practices during the process of manufacturing and distribution.
Masoud Soosaraei, Ahmad Daryani, Mehdi Sharif, Shabeddin Sarvi, Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi, Mahdi Fakhar,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (Jan-Feb 2021)

Background and objectives: Cryptosporidium spp. is a major cause of gastrointestinal illness in humans. There are no data available on geospatial distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. in the Mazandaran Province, Iran. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the spatial patterns and demographic factors associated with Cryptosporidium spp. infection in the Mazandaran Province, North of Iran.
Methods: Fecal specimens were collected from diarrheic individuals (n=215) who were referred to health centers in the Mazandaran Province during 2014-2015. The specimens were examined for presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining.
Results:  Cities of Sari, Neka, Noshahr and Behshahr were identified as disease hotspots. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was significantly higher in subjects under 10 years of age as well as those living in low-altitude areas and rural areas without access to standard water sources.
Conclusion: Our findings and the GIS-derived data could be used to facilitate cryptosporidiosis surveillance and monitoring of Cryptosporidium spp. distribution in the study area.

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