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Showing 20 results for Ebrahimi

S Noor Bakhsh, M Brati, A Tabatabae, F Ebrahimi Taj, M Keshavarz Roohi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (Autumn – Winter 2008[PERSIAN] 2007)

Abstract Background and objectives: Influenza virus is the sixth cause of death in the world. We cannot differentiate it from other respiratory viruses upon clinical signs alone. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of influenza A&B antigen in pharyngeal secretion of children with upper Respiratory Infection (URI). Materials and methods: This cross sectional -descriptive study was done in pediatrics clinic of Rasoul hospital and Shahid Heidari clinic, Tehran (2006-2007). We studied the immunochromatography 149 children aged less than 14 years with URI. Rapid test was performed on pharyngeal samples of all cases. We used independent T test to compare the means of variables. (CI 95%, p<0.05). Results: The Signs of the studied children are fever (58.4%), sore throat (60.4%), coughing, runny nose and hoarseness (45%) and gastric signs (<20%) while in Influenza cases, they are 86.7%, 40% and 40% respectively. Fifteen (10.1%) of the subjects have positive rapid influenza test. The average age of the influenza case is 80 months, which is not significantly different from non-influenza cases. While no under one-year-old child has Positive influenza test, by increasing age the number of positive test is increased. As the frequency in children, aged over 10 is increased to 15.4%. There is significant difference between positive influenza test and signs such as fever, sore throat and previous antibiotic usage (p<0.5). Conclusion: Although this study was not done in epidemic period for influenza, it indicated Influenza as the etiology of 10.6% of URI. Since the cost for prevention and treatment of influenza is high and drug resistance is problematic, we can decrease the URI in non-epidemic period by mass vaccination in children, at least in high-risk cases. Key words: URI (upper respiratory infection), Influenza virus, rapid Immunochromatography Influenza test, Influenza vaccine.
A Maleki, Sh Ebrahimian,, M Omranii, A Ranjbar, A Mikaeili,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (Spring - Summer 2009[PERSIAN] 2009)

Abstract Background and objectives: Blood culture is a critical part of evaluation of Neonate suspected wath Septicaemia. This phenomenon is one of the most important causes of neonates in Neonatal. Material and Methods: This study was carried out on 1470 somples of neonates suspected with bacteraemia , using reutine microbiologicul technique. The samples wene assessed in hazrate Masoomeh hospilal of Kermansha,Iran. Results and Conclusions: of all samples, 112 (7.62%) ane pasitive. Most of the Positive cultures were obtained after 24 hours of incubation in broth mediu. we Confirmed this result by using diseriminafiue culture media the Isolated bacteria are Coagulase-negative Staphylococus(28.6%),Alfahymolylic Streptococus(0.09%), staphylococus aureus(10.7%),Klebseilla(6.2%),pseudomonas(12.5%),moraxella(0.9%),acin eto bacter(13.4%), Alcalingenes(13.4%),protenos(1.8%) and salmonela (0.9%). Conclusion: the frequency of Coagulase-negative Staphylococus Isolated from neonates Blood culture is more than the other micro organisms. Generally, the frequency of gram negative bacteria is higher than gram Positive. Key words: Septicaemia, Blood culture, Bacteraemia, Neonatal
M Dastmardi, S Ghazinoory, R Assadifard, A Ebrahimi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (Autumn – Winter 2011[PERSIAN] 2010)

Abstract Bachground and objectives: Improvement of the effectiveness of services is one of the most important strategies in many clinical and research laboratory centers. The increased client satisfaction (researchers or patients), resource development innovation efficacy, continuity of services and income are also the important strategies of these centers. For achieving these strategies, we combined the qualitative and the quantitative approaches to evaluate the effective model based on frameworks of the Balance Scorecard (BSC) and the Laboratory Quality Management Systems (LQMS). Material and Methods: This paper describes the basic steps required for designing and developing of a model for performance measurement in laboratory centers. For model validation, the relationship between the criteria, the strategies and the strategic objectives was evaluated using both the AHP method and the evaluation by the experts. Results: Implementation of the above mentioned model, conducted in one of the largest Laboratory centers, has resulted in a remarkable enhancement in the efficiency (22%), profit (33%), and level of quality of service (27%) and in the clientschr('39') satisfaction (4%). Conclusion: This research model is a valuable tool for effective evaluation and continuous improvement of the clinical and research laboratory centers. Applying this model leads to increased resource productivity as well as the clients and community satisfaction from the laboratories services. Key words: Laboratory Centers, Performance Management, Balance Scorecard (BSC), Laboratory Quality Management Systems (LQMS)
A Shariati, Hr Pordeli, Me Tajari, E Yazarloo, S Kaghazloo, N Ebrahimi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (Autumn 2013)

Abstract Background and Objective: Understanding the resistance patterns of bacteria and their sensitivity and attempting to find new compounds with broad effective spectrum would be significant in controlling infection. This study aimed at evaluating antibacterial potential of three honey samples produced in Golestan province, Iran, against Enterococcus faecalis strains. Material and Methods: After the isolation and identification of bacterial strains, their antibiotic resistance was determined using Kirby-Bauer method. Then, seven isolates of Enterococcus faecalis with multidrug-resistance were selected and antibacterial activities of honey samples assessed by disk-diffusion, well-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration test (MIC). Results: The highest diameter of inhibition zone in disk-diffusion and well diffusion methods is 20 mm and 26 mm, respectively. Also the MIC is measured 62.5 for all samples. Conclusion: In prohibiting microbial growth, all three samples were successful and they could prevent growing bacterial infection in spite of remarkable resistance of Entrococcus. Hence, further research should be conducted to assess the effects of honey samples against other bacteria. Keywords: Multidrug-Resistance Enterococcus spp Honey Golestan Province
M Dastmardi, A Ebrahimi, Az Mirdamadi, A Ebrahimi, H Ebrahimi, Sh Ebrahimzadeh Rajaee,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (winter[PERSIAN] 2014)

Abstract Background and Objective: Proficiency testing schemes as a part of quality system in clinical and research laboratory centers provides the opportunity to evaluate the quality of test results. In this paper, we try to introduce the proficiency testing schemes as a useful method for achieving standardization and homogenization of test results in clinical and research laboratory centers. Keywords: Proficiency Testing Schemes, Quality Improvement, Laboratory Centers
A Mikaeili, Kh Rahmati,, A Ebrahimi, N Nazari,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (winter[PERSIAN] 2014)

Abstract Background and Objective: Superficial mycoses are increasing in special conditions. This retrospective study was conducted to determine the epidemiological parameters of Pityriasis versicolor and Erythrasma during 1994 – 2011. Material and Methods: In this study, we assessed the results of direct microscopic study and the other data of the patients for Pityriasis versicolor and Erythrasma in 1994 – 2011. Results: Of 2265, 1294 (57%) suffered from pityriasis versicolor, who were mostly males (60%). The highest frequency was related to 20-29 year old and the lowest to 0-9. High school and university students were the most infected groups (33%), September was the most common period and the most common site of involvement was chest and abdomen. The people infected with Erythrasma (971 42%), were mostly 30 -39 year old , males( 58% ) , urban ( 98% ) , reported in July and involved in groin. Conclusion: The frequency of both diseases was high in active age group, males, and the hot months of the year, which are the most common predisposing factors. Keywords: Pityriasis versicolor Erythrasma Kermanshah
Kargar, M, Ebrahimi, E, Amini, J, Najafi, A, Kheirkhah, B,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (supplement Issue[PERSIAN] 2015)

Abstract Background and Objective: Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium transferred by foods and is the agent of many sporadic and epidemic diseases in humans. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and to determinine their antibiotic resistance profile in red meats. Material and Methods: this cross-sectional study was performed on 400 red meat samples obtained from industrial slaughterhouses placed in Kerman, Iran. First, the samples were enriched with Simultaneous Enrichment Broth (SEB), and then plated onto Palcam agar and Tryptic Soy Broth Yeast Extract Broth (TSAYE). After identification of the isolates based on biochemical tests and PCR, the isolates were checked for their antibiotic resistance profile using disk Diffusion Results: of 400 samples, 12 samples (3%) were contaminated with different species of Listeria. Using PCR, hly gene was recognized in eight samples (2%) of L. monocytogenes. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in isolation rate of lamb samples compared to cow ones. While all of the isolates were resistant to clindamycin, amikacin and chloramphenicol, they were sensitive to penicillin. Conclusion: in spite of low rate of infection in red meat samples in Kerman city, due to high risk of Listeria contamination in red meats, we recommend applying a routine screening to identify this bacterium in our county. Keywords: Listeria Monocytogenes, Hly Gene, Red Meat, Antibiotic, Kerman
Ebrahimipour, Gh., Moradi, A, Karkhane, M, Marzban, Ar,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (supplement Issue[PERSIAN] 2015)

Abstract Bachground and Objective: most of environmental microorganisms have the genes resistance to antibiotics and metals. The aim of the current study was to survey resistance pattern to some antibiotics and heavy metals in three pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different ecological areas. Material and Methods: first, the isolates were identified by biochemical methods and phylogenetic analysis. Then, the evaluation of antibiotic resistance was conducted by disc diffusion and that of Heavy metal resistant by agar dilution, in a range of 50-500 µg/ml. Results: The results showed that all three isolates were resistant to beta lactam antibiotics. Although these isolates were highly resistant to heavy metals, no relationship was observed between ecological sources and the resistance pattern in ICT1 and Abt2 strains. However, strain Q isolated from digestive system of ParmacellaIberica showed high resistance to antibiotics and low resistance to heavy metals. Conclusion: given that environmental bacteria have a high potentiality for carrying resistance genes and this can be an advantage environmentally, they could be used to remove heavy metals from polluted areas. On the other hand, resistance genes medically are a concern due to probability of transferring to pathogen strains. Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance, Heavy Metal Resistance, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Yaghoobi Avini, M, Daraei, M, Ebrahimipour, Gh,
Volume 8, Issue 5 (winter[PERSIAN] 2015)

Abstract Background and Objective: The bacteria living in the specific ecological conditions are among the most promising antimicrobial producers. This study aimed at isolating antimicrobial producing bacteria from soils contaminated with crude oil. Material and Methods: the samples were obtained from crude oil contaminated soils around Dezful located in Khuzestan province, Iran, and antimicrobial producing bacteria were isolated using disc diffusion and cross streak culture. Then, the best bacterium was selected and its antimicrobial potency was studied against indicator microorganisms. The isolate was also characterized based on biochemical properties and phylogenetic analysis. Results: based on the results, the highest antimicrobial activity of isolated bacterium was related to Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Bacillus subtilis, E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. An intermediate effect was determined against Serratia marcesens and Staphylococcus aureus, whereas no effect was observed against three strains of Enterococcus. Using biochemical characteristics and phenotypic traits, the isolate was identified as Alcaligenes faecalis. Conclusion: given that the isolate has broad spectrum activity against a various range of microorganisms and in comparison with some antimicrobial compounds produced by other Alcaligenes species, it seems the novelty of this antimicrobial compound. Keywords: Antimicrobial Compound, Oil Contaminated Soil, Alcaligenes faecalis
Mikaeili, A, Geravand, Z, Ebrahimi, A, Hamzavi, Y,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (may,jun 2015[PERSIAN] 2015)

Keiwan Ebrahimi Mohammadi , Faraz Arashrad,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct-2016 2016)


        Background and Objective: Microalgae are a group of algae that produce biochemical products consisting of a wide range of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins that are commercially valuable. Interest in microalgal cultivation is currently blossoming globally. Species of Dunaliella are found in freshwater, euryhaline habitats of all continents, oceans including the Dead Sea and even the salt lakes of the Antarctic. This study investigates the effect of different salinity levels on β-carotene production by Dunaliella sp.

       Methods: Water samples from a hyper-saline lake (the Maharlu Lake in Shiraz) were cultured in modified Johnson media. The β-carotene content was measured after the samples were treated with different salinities (1, 2 and 3M NaCl).

         Results: The cell count and β-carotene content of Dunaliella sp. samples ranged between 0.46×106 to 2.12×106 cell.mL-1 and 0.15 to 9.98 pg.cell-1, respectively. At the end of the experiments, the mean maximum cell content (1.78×106 cell. mL-1) and the highest mean β-carotene content (7.41 pg. cell-1) were obtained at 2 and 3M NaCl concentrations, respectively.

       Conclusion: Salinity of the medium might affect the quantity and composition of carotenoids in Dunaliella sp. isolates. Alteration of the culture medium’s salinity to 3M NaCl significantly increases the accumulation of β-carotene and total carotenoids in Dunaliella sp. isolates.

       Keywords: Dunaliella, Microalgae, Maharlu Lake, β-carotene.

Azizollah Ebrahimi Kahrizsangi , Saied Habibian Dehkordi , Ziba Shabanpur, Reza Hakimi Alni , Majid Hemati,
Volume 10, Issue 6 (Nov-Dec-2016 2016)


         Background and Objective: Biofilms are community of bacteria that attach to inanimate surfaces or living tissues via production of extracellular polymers and exopolysaccharide matrix. Microbial biofilms on various surfaces of the hospital environment are considered as a reservoir of infection spread. The present study aimed to evaluate the disinfecting effect of benzalkonium chloride on some bacterial isolates causing nosocomial infections.

       Methods: First, 13 isolates from four bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter were obtained from Microbiology Laboratory of Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. The samples were transferred to Microbiology Laboratory of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Shahrekord University for testing. Evaluation of biofilm formation and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the disinfectant and effect of the disinfectant on planktonic growth and biofilm formation were performed.

        Results: All bacterial isolates (52 cases) produced biofilm. Mean MIC of benzalkonium chloride for P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter was 0.14, 0.2, 0.18, 0.17 g/ml, respectively. Planktonic growth of all four bacteria was inhibited at concentrations of 2MIC, MIC and 1/2MIC. Biofilm was not produced in MIC and 2MIC concentrations, and biofilm formation capability increased by reducing the concentration of benzalkonium chloride.

          Conclusion: The results show that the use of appropriate concentration of benzalkonium chloride can prevent the growth of different bacterial species, but sub-MIC dose of this disinfectant may stimulate biofilm formation.

            Keywords: Biofilm, Benzalkonium Chloride, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Staphylococcus Aureus, Enterobacter, Acinetobacter.

Mahshid Zandi , Mohammad Ebrahimifard, Abdolvahab Moradi,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (May-Jun 2017)

       Background and Objective: MiRNAs are small RNAs that are expressed in most eukaryotes, and can regulate gene expression by attaching to the 3’ end of target mRNA. MicroRNA-101 (miR-101) post-transcriptional regulation is important for host-virus interactions. In addition, miR-101 has a tumor suppressive role in liver cancer and metastasis, and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. We examined miR-101 expression in patients with chronic hepatitis B, hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated cirrhosis and healthy individuals.
       Methods: The study was performed on 108 whole blood samples (36 samples from each group) collected in EDTA tubes. RNA was extraction by RNX-plus kit according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Finally, miRNA expression was evaluated using relative real time PCR.
         Results: A 2.4-fold increase was observed in miR-101 expression in patients with chronic hepatitis B, while there was a 3.5-fold increase in miR-101 expression in patients with HBV-associated cirrhosis compared with healthy controls (P=0.003). MiR-101 overexpression in patients with HBV-associated cirrhosis was more notable that in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
         Conclusion: According to the results, evaluating miR-101 expression may predict disease progression from chronic hepatitis B to HBV-associated cirrhosis.
         Keywords: MicroRNAs, Chronic Hepatitis B, Liver Cirrhosis, MiR-101.

Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini Tabari , Mohammad Reza Youssefi, Bibi Razieh Hosseini Farash , Mohammad Amin Ebrahimi, Niki Nabavi Mousavi , Elham Moghaddas,
Volume 11, Issue 5 (Sep - Oct 2017)

         Background and Objectives: Due to adverse effects of pentavalent  antimonial  treatment of visceral leishmaniasis using herbal medicines has received a lot of attention. In this study, we evaluated inhibitory activity of Pelargonium roseum essential oil on growth of Leishmania infantum promastigotes, and compared it with that of Glucantime.
        Methods: Inhibitory effects of different concentrations (1, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 µL/ml) of P. roseum essential oil on the growth of L. infantum promastigotes were studied by MTT assay after 24 and 48 hours. All the data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. The effect of the essential oil was later compared with that of standard dose of Glucantime.
        Results: After 24 hours, different concentrations of the essential oil had no significant inhibitory effect on promastigotes of L. infantum. After 48 hours, all concentrations except for 1µL/ml showed significant anti-leishmanial activity. In addition, the lowest concentration that had significant inhibitory effect on L. infantum promastigote was 5 µL/ml.
       Conclusion: The essential oil of P. roseum has favorable inhibitory activity on the growth of L. infantum promastigotes after 48 hours. This indicates the therapeutic potential of this plant for treatment of leishmaniasis.
        Keywords: Leishmania infantum, Pelargonium, Promastigote, Meglumine antimoniate.

Hiro Memari , Keiwan Ebrahimi Mohammadi , Peiman Esmaeilzadeh,
Volume 11, Issue 5 (Sep - Oct 2017)

       Background and objectives: Contamination of food products with mycotoxins is a public health problem. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has identified mycotoxins as hepatotoxic and carcinogenic agents to humans (Group 1). The Kurdistan Province is the ninth largest producer of wheat in Iran. We aimed to determine the level of contamination with total aflatoxin (TAF), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in 66 wheat samples randomly selected from 11 wheat flour factories in spring and summer.
       Methods: The level of toxins was measured by microtiter plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a microtitre plate ELISA reader and total AF, AFB1 and OTA commercial kits.
      Results: Overall, the level of TAF and AFB in 16.67% of the samples exceeded the maximum tolerable limit set by the Institute of Standard and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI). However, the level of OTA contamination did not exceed the maximum tolerable limit set by the ISIRI. In addition, the level of TAF, AFB1 and OTA exceeded the maximum tolerable limit set by the EU in 68.18, 90.91 and 36.36% of the samples, respectively. The level of contamination with these mycotoxins differed significantly in spring and summer (P<0.05).
      Conclusion: The level of mycotoxin contamination in wheat samples produced in the Kurdistan Province is alarmingly high and appropriate measures should be taken to eliminate the causes of this issue.
         KEYWORDS: Aflatoxin, Aflatoxin B1, Ochratoxin A, Wheat, ELISA.

Amin Farzaneh Hesari , Akram Ebrahimi, Masoumeh Azizi Zanjani , Solmaz Mahdavi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (Jan-Feb 2018)

         Background and Objectives: Elevated blood lipid levels are correlated with risk of cardiovascular disease, especially in overweight individuals. The beneficial effect of strength training on lipid profile has been well documented. However, the effect of strength training with flow blood restriction has not been established. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of eight weeks of strength training with and without blood flow restriction on some of the cardiovascular risk factors in overweight females.
         Methods: In this study, 28 overweight females aged 18 to 24 years were randomly assigned into three groups of blood flow restriction strength training (BFRT), traditional strength training (TRT) and control. Participants in the BFRT group performed eight weeks of strength training three sessions per week at 30% of 1-repetetion maximum, while participants in the TRT group performed the training at 65-80% of 1-repetetion maximum. Cardiovascular variables, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were measured before and after the exercise training. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t-test and one-way analysis of variance.
          Results: Triglyceride level decreased significantly in the BFRT (p=0.022) and TRT (p=0.038) groups compared with the control group. Moreover, there were no significant differences in the body mass, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and cholesterol levels between the study groups (P≥0.05).
           Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the BFRT and TRT may not be suitable for preventing or even reversing the physiological changes induced by obesity.
         Keywords: Resistance Training, Lipids, lipoprotein, overweight.

Awat Ebrahim, Keiwan Ebrahimi Mohammadi ,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (May-Jun 2018)

           Background and Objectives: Local cheese made from raw milk is one of the most commonly consumed dairy products in the world. Mycotoxin contamination of foodstuff and its transmission to consumers are extremely important public health issues. The purpose of this survey was to determine the level of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) residues in Koupeh cheese, a traditional fermented Iranian cheese produced in spring and summer.
           Methods: We randomly collected 48 local cheese samples produced in Mahabad (northwest of Iran) during spring and summer. The level of AFM1 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay using commercial kits and a microplate reader.
           Results: All samples contained measurable amounts of AFM1. Cow milk cheese samples contained higher level of AFM1 compared to sheep milk cheese samples. The level of AFM1 in the samples from both animals was lower in summer. There was no significant difference between the mean level of AFM1 in summer and spring. Moreover, 33.3% of cow milk cheese samples collected in spring and 16.6% of the samples collected in summer contained toxin levels higher than the maximum allowed concentration set by the European Commission (250 ng/Kg) and by the Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (200 ng/Kg).
           Conclusion: The results of this study show that the level of AFM1in Koupeh cheese is influenced by the livestock type and production season, in a way that the level of contamination is higher in spring.
           Keywords: Cheese, Cultured Milk Products, Aflatoxin M1, ELISA.

Azizollah Ebrahimi, Younes Daryalal, Mohamadreza Mahzounieh, Sharareh Lotfalian,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (Jul-Aug 2018)

         Background and Objectives: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have physical and surface properties that could threaten human and environmental health. AgNPs are classified as ‘very toxic’ to eukaryotic organisms and are less toxic to bacteria. The aim of the present study was to study the effects of different sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of AgNPs on some virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus as a pathogenic bacterial model.
         Methods: Tube double serial dilution method was used to determine MIC of AgNPs against standard strain and ten field isolates of S. aureus. Tube cultures of isolates in LB broth were supplemented with different concentrations of AgNPs and were incubated at 37 °C with constant shaking under aerobic conditions. Samples from each tube were streaked on blood agar plates and assay for hemolysins, coagulase and DNase production were performed.
         Results: The MIC of AgNPs against all examined isolates was determined as 50 µg/mL. The results showed that 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 MIC of AgNPs had no negative effect on DNase and coagulase production but inhibited alpha- and beta-hemolysin production in most isolates (64-91%). In addition, production of delta-hemolysin was inhibited by 1/2 MIC of AgNPs.
         Conclusion: The effects of sub-MIC of AgNPs on bacterial growth appear at 4-8 hours post-exposure and then the bacteria follow a normal growth trend. This toxic effect may affect ecosystems species.
         Keywords: Silver particles, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Virulence factors, Staphylococcus aureus.

Azizollah Ebrahimi , Azimeh Babaaie , Mojtaba Boniadian , Sharareh Lotfalian ,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (May-Jun 2019)

             Background and Objectives: Efflux-based systems may play a role in resistance to fluoroquinolones in Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Extracts of some medicinal plants contain molecules that can act as efflux pumps inhibitors. In this study, we aimed to evaluate antibacterial activities of ethanolic and chloroform extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their possible synergistic activity with ciprofloxacin against some Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. We also analyzed the extracts for presence of efflux pump inhibitors against the examined bacteria.
             Methods:  Powdered dried leaves and branches of C. zeylanicum were extracted with ethanol (85%) and chloroform by the maceration method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts alone or combined with ciprofloxacin and phenylalanine-arginine β-naphthylamide (an efflux pump inhibitor) were determined against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter bummani, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis using the double serial microdilution method.
             Results: The extracts of C. zeylanicum inhibited the growth of all studied bacteria. Synergistic effects were noted between the extracts and ciprofloxacin against all tested bacteria other than P. aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin efflux pumps in E. coli, S. enteritiditis and A. baumannii were inhibited by the extracts of C. zeylanicum.
             Conclusion: The extracts of C. zeylanicum could be used as ciprofloxacin-potentiating agents against some Gram-negative pathogens.
             Keywords: Anti-bacterial agents, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Bacterial pathogens, Efflux pumps.

Azizollah Ebrahimi, Soheila Rabiaee, Sharareh Lotfalian, Saied Habibian,
Volume 14, Issue 4 (Jul-Aug 2020)

          Background and objectives: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil is a food additive with proven antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Thus, it may be a good candidate for controlling foodborne pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus. The aim of the present study was to evaluate effects of sub–minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of clove oil on some virulence factors of S. aureus.
          Methods: The standard strain and 12 field isolates of S. aureus were obtained from our microbial collections. The broth tube dilution method was used to determine the MIC of clove oil against the isolates. Sterile 96-well flat bottom poly­styrene microtiter plates were used for planktonic growth and biofilm formation assays. Slide coagulase test was used for assaying effect of clove oil on clumping factor production. Production of α- and β-hemolysins was assessed by culture on 5% bovine blood agar.
          Results: The results showed that sub-MIC concentrations of clove oil inhibited α- and β-hemolysins and biofilm production and planktonic growth of the examined isolates. However, clumping factor was not affected by sub-MIC concentrations of clove oil.
          Conclusion: Our results indicate the favorable inhibitory effects of sub-MIC concentrations of clove oil against growth and biofilm and hemolysins production of S. aureus isolates.

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