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Pashaie Naghadeh, A, Dabirzadeh, M, Davoodi, T, Hashemi, M,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (may,jun 2015[PERSIAN] 2015)


Background and objective: Bioindicators of drinking water are always influenced by physical and chemical factors such as turbidity and chlorine.  Considering the assessment of drinking water quality is based on residual chlorine, E.coli, heterotrophic bacteria and turbidity.  We aimed to evaluate the effect of pH, chlorine residual and turbidity on the microbial bioindicators.

Material and methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, 324 and 32 water samples were collected from rural and urban water distribution network of Aq Qala city in 2013, respectively. All steps were performed according to standard methods.

Results: In rural water supply, 5%, 9% and 33% of the samples were contaminated with fecal coliform, fecal streptococcus and the heterotrophic more than 500CFU / ml. In urban network, coliform contamination was not seen and other bioindicators were less than those of rural networks were. Turbidity of above 5 NTU in urban and rural samples was 3 and 9 percent, respectively. Bioindicators had significant relationship with residual chlorine, fecal coliform bacteria with pH and turbidity with heterotrophic bacteria (P ≤0.05).

Conclusion: The presence of fecal streptococcus bacteria in some samples without fecal coliform cannot confirm the safety of drinking water.  Microbial contamination in the presence of residual chlorine implies that just chlorination   is not enough for having healthy water.

Keywords: Chlorine, Turbidity, Biological Factors, Drinking water

Mansour Dabirzadeh , Abbas Pashaie Neghadeh , Tahere Davoodi , Mohammad Hashemi ,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (Mar,Apr2016 2016)


         Background and Objective: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease and a health problem in different parts of Iran, especially two cities of Mashhad and Chabahar. Due to morphological similarities of most Leishmania species and difference in reservoirs of L. major and L. tropica, it is necessary to determine the parasite specie to combat the disease. Thus, this study used gene sequencing and genotyping of 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) to differentiate the two species of Leishmania.

         Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, microscope slides and cultures were prepared from 43 patients suspected of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Chabahar and Mashhad. PCR was performed after genomic DNA extraction and then PCR products were sequenced and analyzed.

        Results: Of the 43 patients studied, 32 direct smear and culture (74.4%) were positive and 11 (25.6%) showed negative results, and were therefore excluded from the study. Using HSP70-specific primers, 1962 bp and 1152bp bands were observed for HSP70 of L. major in Chabahar and L. tropica in Mashhad, respectively. Based on the results, there were 18 nucleotide differences between HSP70 of L. major in Chabahar and L. tropica in Mashhad.

         Conclusion: Due to the morphological similarities between Leishmania species and inability to differentiate species through parasitological methods, the HSP70 gene can be used for identification of the species, and prevention and treatment of the disease.


Hosein Soleimanpoor , Mansour Dabirzadeh, Bahman Fooladi ,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (Mar,Apr2016 2016)


       Background and Objective: Chabahar is in Southern Iran located near the Iran-Pakistan border. Since leishmaniasis is an emerging disease in this region, this study aimed to diagnose the disease and identify different species of Leishmania parasite in the patients referred to the central laboratory.

      Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011-2012 on patients referred to the central laboratory in the city of Chabahar. The sampling of lesions, slide preparation, culture and PCR specific for kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), extracted from the media and slides, were performed. The data collected by a questionnaire were analyzed by the SPSS software.

       Results:  The resulted bands from the 48 tested cutaneous leishmaniasis isolates were compared with the standard strains of Leishmania tropica, L. infantum and L. major. All 48 investigated bands were in the 620bp region, which is related to L. major.

        Conclusion: Since PCR has high sensitivity and specificity, it is recommended to use kDNA (present in a unique organelle called kinetoplast) for the routine diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

Asghar Farghi Yamchi , Mansour Dabirzadeh , Abdolhossein Miri,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct-2016 2016)


       Background and Objective: Leishmania major is a flagellate protozoan parasite causing cutaneous leishmaniasis. Although pentavalent antimony compounds are the first-line drugs for leishmaniasis, their application is often accompanied by numerous limitations and side effects. Therefore, it is necessary to seek drugs of herbal origin that have fast-acting benefits and few side effects without resistance. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of methanolic extract of Arctiul lappa root on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. major.

       Methods: This experimental study evaluated the effects of 10, 100, 500, and 1000 µg/ml of A. lappa root methanol extract on L. major promastigotes using direct cell counting and MTT assay. The mean number of amastigotes in infected macrophages was calculated after 24 and 48 hours.

       Results: The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of A. lappa root methanolic extract was 131.25 µg/ml after 24 hours. The mean number of amastigotes in macrophages after 24 hours in the control group and in the A. lappa group with concentrations of 500 and 1000 µg/ml were 3.52, 2.02, and 1.27, respectively.

        Conclusion: The results show that the methanolic extract of A. lappa root has anti-leishmanial effects on the promastigotes and amastigotes of L. major in vitro.

        Keywords: Leishmania Major, Amastigotes, Promastigotes, Arctium.

Jaber Ali Poor , Mansor Dabirzadeh, Yahya Marofi , Seyed Ali Asghar Sefidgar,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (May-Jun 2017)

          Background and objective: Surgery is the gold standard treatment for hydatidosis. Scolicidal agents could be used during surgery to kill protoscoleces and prevent cyst recurrence after rupturing of main lesion. Non-chemical agents with sufficient protoscolex-killing activity are known to be fully effective in this regard with fewer side effects. Fig tree is an Iranian native plant, which has been used for medicinal purposes in traditional medicine.
          Methods: After obtaining infected hydatid cyst of the liver from a slaughterhouse in Babol (Iran), the percentage of live protoscoleces was calculated by critical staining with 0.1 % eosin. Then, the protoscolex-killing activity of methanolic extract of fig leaves was evaluated at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/ml in 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 minutes exposure times. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 22).
          Results: Concentration of 20 mg/ml of the extract showed 100% protoscolex-killing activity within the first 2 minutes of exposure. In addition, the lowest protoscolex-killing activity (45%) was observed at concentration of 2.5 mg/ml after 2 minutes. The results also showed that the protoscolex-killing activity of the extract increases significantly in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P <0.001).
         Conclusion: The methanolic extract of fig leaf at concentration of 20 mg/ml could exert significant scolicidal effect within 2 minutes of exposure. Therefore, complementary experiments should be performed on animal models to further assess the efficiency of the extract for killing protoscoleces of hydatid cyst during surgery.
          Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, methanolic extract of Ficus carica, broth dilution. 

Hamed Noormohammadi , Yahya Maroufi , Mansour Dabirzadeh , Abdolhossein Miri ,
Volume 11, Issue 6 (Nov - Dec 2017)

            Background and Objectives: Leishmaniasis is a public health problem caused by the protozoan Leishmania. Pentavalent antimonials are currently used for treatment of leishmaniasis, but they have serious side effects. Nerium oleander L. has been used in traditional medicine due to its various health-protective properties. This study aimed to investigate anti-leishmanial activity of N. oleander L. leaves extract against Leishmania major promastigotes and amastigotes in vitro.
            Methods: L. major promastigotes were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium supplied with 10% fetal bovine serum. Different concentrations were prepared from the extract and added to L. major promastigotes seeded in 96-well plates. Viability percentage was evaluated by direct counting and MTT assay after 24, 48 and 72 hours. To investigate the cytotoxic effect of N. oleander L. on L. major amastigotes, the plant extract was added to amastigotes cultured in intraperitoneal macrophages. The mean number of amastigotes was calculated by direct counting after 24 and 48 hours.
             Results: All concentrations of the extract significantly reduced the viability of promastigotes when compared with the controls. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration was estimated to be 22.21 µg/ml after 24 hours. Percentage of cytotoxicity in amastigotes exposed to 20 μg/ml of the extract was 53.61% and 53.27% after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. In addition, percentage of cytotoxicity in amastigotes exposed to 80 μg/ml of the N. oleander L. extract was 53.77% and 55.48% after 24 and 48 hours, respectively.
            Conclusion: The N. oleander L. extract exerts anti-leishmanial activity on L. major promastigotes in a time- and dose-dependent manner.
             Keywords: Leishmania major, Nerium.

Asghar Farghi Yamchi , Mansour Dabirzadeh, Yahya Maroufi,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2018)

           Background and objectives: Leishmania major is a flagellated parasitic protozoan that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis. Pentavalent antimony compounds are considered the first-line drugs in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. However, the use of these drugs is associated with numerous limitations and side effects. Therefore, there is a need for herbal and natural alternatives for these compounds with fewer side effects. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of methanol extract of Quercus infectoria (oak galls) against promastigotes and amastigotes of L. major.
           Methods: In this experimental study, the effect of 10, 100, 500 and 1000 µg/ml of methanolic extract of oak galls and 100, 500, 1000 and 10000 µg/ml of Glucantime was evaluated against L. major promastigotes using direct cell counting and MTT assay. Moreover, the effect of different concentrations of the extract and Glucantime was investigated on the mean number of amastigotes in macrophages after 24 and 48 hours. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 and one- way analysis of variance.
           Results: The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the oak gall extract and Glucantime was 75 µg/ml and 221 µg/ml after 24 hours, respectively. After 24 hours, the mean number of amastigotes per macrophage was lowest at concentrations of 1000 µg/ml of the extract (0.9) and 10000 µg/ml of Glucantime (0.85).
           Conclusion: Considering the inhibition of intracellular and extracellular growth of L. major, the oak gall extract might be used as an efficient and safe agent for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.
           KEYWORDS: Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous, Quercus.

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