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R Esmaeili, R Yousefi Mashouf, A Moshtaghi, M Alikhani,
Volume 7, Issue 5 (supplement Issue( Bacteriology)[PERSIAN] 2014)

Abstract Background and Objective: Bacterial infectioins in particular meningitis, pneumonia and septicemia are still some of the most causes of mortalities in children.The aim of present study was to identify the most common bacterial agents causing infectionis in children under 14 and detection of antibiotic resistance paterns. Material and Methods: During two years,1897samples were obtained from the patients suspected bacterial infectioins. They were investigated for bacterial cultures, age, sex and antibiogram patterns. The species were identified by biochemical and serological methods. Results: Of 1897 samples, 563 (29.6%) had positve bacterial culture. Of these 74.7% were gram negative and 25.3% gram positive . The most common species were Escherichia coli(34.1%), Staphylococcus aureus (17.1%), Psuedomonas aeroginosa (12.4%), Kelebsiella (11%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (5.7%). The most effective antibiotics against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria were ceftriaoxne, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid, amikacin and gentamycin. Conclusion: The gram negative bacteria in particular Escherichia coli, Psuedomonas aeroginosa and Kelebsiella are the predominant causes of bacterial infections in children under 14 in these regions. Most species showed a high relative resisitance to routine antibiotics such as ampicillin, trimethoprim and chloramphenicol. Key Words: Bacteria Infection Children Antibiotic
Sedighi, I, Alikhani, My, Nakhaee, S, Karami, P,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (supplement Issue[PERSIAN] 2015)

Abstract Background and Objective: Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infections in children and the leading cause of intra-abdominal infections (peritonitis and abscess) followed intestinal injuries. Urinary tract infection, including cystitis and pyelonephritis, is a common childhood infection. E. coli causes more than 90 percent of the community acquired and 50% of hospital acquired urinary tract infections therefore, the determination of E. coli antibiotic susceptibility is a paramount importance to clinical and epidemiological purposes. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 50 E. coli strains isolated from urine samples of children less than 7 years of age with urinary tract infections. They were compared for drug susceptibility testing by disc diffusion method with 50 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from stool samples of healthy children with the same age and sex pattern. Results: The actual amount of drug sensitivity of uropathogenic and intestinal Escherichia coli strains to amikacin was 94 and 100%, nitrofurantoin 90 and 88%, gentamicin 66 and 94%, cefixime 56 and 60%, nalidixic acid 38 and 44% and to cotrimoxazole 28 and 32%, respectively. Conclusion: the rate of resistance to gentamicin, Cefixime and nalidixic acid in urinary tract infection isolates were more than intestinal strains. The highest rate of drug resistance in urinary Escherichia coli isolates was associated with cotrimoxazole and the lowest one with amikacin. Keywords: Escherichia Coli, Intra-Abdominal Infection, Drug Resistance, Urinary Tract Infection, Children

Seyedeyn Khorasani, M, Yousefi Mashouf, R, Majlesi, A, Jaefari, M, Alikhani, My,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (March, April[PERSIAN] 2015)

Abstract Background and Objective: Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection is related to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer. Thus, identification and treatment of the infection have a considerable importance. The aim of this study was to compare three methods of Histopathology, Culture and Rapid Urease test (RUT) in identification of H. Pylori in gastric biopsy specimens. Material and Methods: The participants were 153 patients (64 women and 89 men) suffering from digestive complaints, who referred to the endoscopy department of Shahid Beheshi Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. Three gastric biopsy samples were collected from each patient and examined by standard RUT, Histopathology and culture methods for diagnosis of H. Pylori. Results: Out of 153 patients, 69.9%, 27.4% and 2.6 % had gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer, respectively. The rate of infection with Urease test, culture and histology were identified 49.7%, 54.2%, and 89.5%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the RUT result at first hour and after the first up to 24 hours were 55.4% and 80%, and 55.4% and 66/7%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of culture method were 60.6% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results, Histopathology method has a more sensitivity than both Culture method and rapid urease test for diagnosis of H. Pylori, and RUT is more specific when done in the first hour rather than after the first hour. Key words: Helicobacter pylori, rapid urease test methods, RUT, Histopathology
Reza Hakimi Alni , Abdolmajid Mohammadzadeh , Pezhman Mahmoodi , Mohammad Yousef Alikhani ,
Volume 11, Issue 6 (Nov - Dec 2017)

          Background and Objectives: Determining the genetic relationship between S. aureus isolates is important for epidemiological surveillance and control of infections caused by this bacterium. The present study was conducted to determine polymorphisms of coagulase gene (coa) among S. aureus isolates from pastry and cheese samples using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.
         Methods: Overall, 65 S. aureus isolated from pastry (n=45) and cheese (n=20) samples were examined for the coa gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR products were digested with AluI enzyme and the products were assessed using gel electrophoresis.
          Results: Except for two isolates, all isolates were positive in coa-PCR and produced four different PCR products, with molecular sizes ranging from 570 to 970 bp. Overall; five distinct RFLP patterns were detected (I-V). Although pattern types I and III were present in isolates from both samples, types I and IV were mainly present in isolates from cheese and pastry samples, respectively.
        Conclusion: PCR-RFLP analysis of the coa gene indicates that S. aureus isolates from pastry and cheese samples may be originated from different sources. However, as one pattern type was predominant in each group, it can be concluded that majority of the isolates may have the same origin.
          Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, PCR-RFLP, Coagulase, Pastry, Cheese.

Mohsen Mousavi , Behrooz Johari , Jamil Zargan , Ashkan Haji Noor Mohammadi , Hamid Reza Goudarzi , Saeed Dezianian , Hani Keshavarz Alikhani ,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (May-Jun 2019)

            Background and Objectives: Nowadays, infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria are among the most important causes of mortality worldwide. This has attracted the attention of researchers to seek suitable alternatives for antibiotics. The venom of many toxic species such as arthropods has antibacterial properties. In this study, we investigated antibacterial effects of crude venom of Latrodectus dahli on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis.
            Methods: Lyophilized crude venom of L. dahli was dissolved in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer. Protein concentration was determined by the Bradford assay. Then, the bacteria were exposed to different concentrations (31.25-250 ng/mL) of the crude venom. Inhibitory activity of the venom against the bacteria was determined by MTT assay and determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).
            Results: Results of the MTT assay showed that the crude venom significantly inhibited the growth of E. coli (31.25 and 62.5 ng/mL), S. aureus (at 250 ng/mL) and B. subtilis (at 125 and 250 ng/mL). In the MIC experiment, the crude venom significantly inhibited the growth of E. coli (at concentrations of 31.25 and 62.5ng/mL), S. aureus (at concentrations of 31.25-250 ng/mL) and B. subtilis (at concentrations of 31.25-250ng/mL).
            Conclusion: The crude venom of L. dahli and its components showed relatively strong antibacterial effects.
            Keywords: Spider venoms, Black Widow Spider, Antibacterial agent, Drug-resistance.

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