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Leila Fozouni, Maryam Yaghoobpour, Ania Ahani Azari,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (7-2019)

 Background and objectives: Acinetobacter is a genus of opportunistic pathogens that are commonly found in the environment. Given the unique ability of these bacteria to survive in the hospital, they are considered as one of the main causes of hospital-acquired infections. The emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp., particularly Acinetobacter baumannii has become a major health threat worldwide. In this study, we investigate antibacterial effects of probiotic isolates from goat milk on clinical isolates of A. baumannii.
Methods: In this study, 100 clinical specimens were taken from patients hospitalized in six hospitals in the Golestan Province, north of Iran. Following isolation and identification of A. baumannii strains, antibiotic resistance patterns of the isolates were investigated using the Kirby-Bauer method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI-2015) guidelines. Probiotic bacteria in goat milk were isolated and identified by culture in MRS and M17 media and carbohydrate fermentation tests. Antibacterial effects of the probiotic bacteria against resistant A. baumannii isolates were evaluated using the agar well diffusion method.
Results: Overall, 55% of the isolates were identified as A. baumannii. The highest resistance rates were observed against tobramycin (76.3%), mezlocillin (74.5%) and cefotaxime (74.5%). Resistance to levofloxacin, tetracycline, imipenem and minocycline was detected in 72.7%, 72.7%, 70.9% and 29.1% of the isolates, respectively. The most common probiotic isolates were Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus piscium (30% each). The highest and lowest effects were exerted by Lactococcus lactis (34.54%) and Lactobacillus bulgaricus (3.63%), respectively.
Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the prevalence of drug-resistant A. baumannii strains is high in the hospitals. Given the promising antimicrobial effects of the isolated probiotic bacteria, goat milk can be recommended as an adjuvant therapy or an alternative to common antibiotics for improving treatment outcome of infections caused by drug-resistant A. baumannii.
Zahra Tajari, Leila Fozouni,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2021)

Background and Objectives: Foodborne illness is a common public health problem. Surfaces and equipment used in food production are involved in the spread of foodborne pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial effect of Vinoxide and Sanisept against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from food production lines.
Material and Methods: In this descriptive study, 110 samples were taken from various equipment and surfaces used in food workshops and local kitchens. After identification of S. aureus by microbiological tests, the antimicrobial effect of two disinfectants (Vinoxide and Sanisept) on the isolates was assessed using the dilution-neutralization test according to the protocols of Iranian National Standards No 2842 and 9899.
Results: Of 110 collected samples, 21 (19.1%) were contaminated with S. aureus. The results showed that 19% and 38% of S. aureus isolates were able to grow after treatment with Vinoxide and Sanisept, respectively. Although Vinoxide had better bactericidal effect than Sanisept, both disinfectants could significantly reduce the number of live S. aureus isolates (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Sanisept and Vinoxide have significant inhibitory effects on S. aureus isolates, but due to the unpleasant odor of Vinoxide, the use of Sanisept is recommended in food industry.

Elham Hashempour, Leila Fozouni, Ania Ahani Azari,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (10-2021)

BBackground and Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important case of nosocomial infections and a major health problem. The increased emergence of resistance to antibiotics and disinfectants among these bacteria, necessitates the production of new antimicrobials with wider activity and low toxicity. This study was carried out to evaluate inhibitory effects of chlorhexidine gluconate and extract of Peganum harmala on multi-drug resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa.
Material and Methods: 39 P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from 114 environmental samples. After identifying MDR strains, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of chlorhexidine gluconate (20%) and P. harmala extract against the isolates was determined by broth microdilution method. 
Results: Overall, 27 (69.2%) P. aeruginosa isolates resistant to quinolones, aminoglycoside, cephems and carbapenems were reported as MDR strains. The MIC of chlorhexidine gluconate was ≥ 1000μg/ml, which was 4-fold higher than the MIC of P. harmala extract (MIC=500μg/ml). MIC of chlorhexidine gluconate and P. harmala extract against P. aeruginosa isolates differed significantly (P=0.01).
Conclusion: Compared to chlorhexidine gluconate, P. harmala extract has a higher antibacterial effect on MDR P. aeruginosa isolates from environment. Further research is required to verify the efficacy of this plant extract for disinfection of equipment in clinics and local kitchens.

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