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Aioub Sofizadeh , Berdi Eftekhari , Ali Reza Pesaraklo, Ali Mohammadnia , Farhad Ajam , Morteza Farrokhi Balajadeh, Mahmoud Yapang Gharavi , Nader Sanad Gol ,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2018)

Background & Objectives: Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are medically considered as one of the most important species of insects in terms of disease transmission to human beings; hence, they can be vectors of remarkable diseases such as malaria, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and filariasis. This study aimed to determine the species diversity and larval habitat characteristics of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Golestan Province in 2016.
Materials & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, larval habitats of mosquitoes were investigated in 14 counties of Golestan Province. Samples were collected by a standard ladle used for entomology. The collected larvae in lactophenol solution were transferred to a medical entomology laboratory in Gonbad-e Qabus County, and then microscopic slides were prepared. Mosquitoes species were identified based on their morphologic attributes and authentic identification keys. Larval habitat characteristics were studied in terms of the habitat type (permanent or temporary), water conditions (clear or turbid, stagnant or running), vegetation (with or without vegetation), sunlight exposure (full or partial exposure), and others. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 18.
Results: On the basis of analysis, 2891 third and fourth instars larvae, 4 genera (Anopheles, Culex, Culiseta, and Ochlerotatus), and 9 species (Anopheles superpictus, Culex mimiticus, Culex perexiguus, Culex pipiens, Culex pusillus, Culex theileri, Culex tritaeniohynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caspius) of mosquitoes were detected, with the Culex pipiens being recognized as the dominant species of this family in Golestan Province.
Conclusion: Due to the high species diversity of Culicidae in Golestan Province, further studies are of essence to investigate the ecology of medically important species such as Culex pipiens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, and Anopheles superpicts, which are the vectors of many diseases in Golestan province.
Omid Mozafari, Aioub Sofizadeh, Hamid Reza Shoraka, Javad Namrodi, Ehsan Allah Kalteh,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (3-2020)

Background and objective: zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is one of the most important health problems in Golestan Province, northeastern Iran. Several studies have investigated various aspects of the disease in this province. Herein, we provide a detailed review of the results of all studies related to leishmaniasis to give a reliable insight into the state of the disease in this province.
Material and Methods: The search for articles was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science without language restriction until the beginning of 2019.  Articles in Persian were retrieved from the Magiran, Scientific Information Database, and IranMedex. Overall, 41 articles were subjected to content analysis under the different themes.
Results: Counties of Gonbad-e-Kavus and Maraveh Tappeh are endemic areas of ZCL with an incidence rate 99.4-379.1 in 100000 population and has mesoendemic situation in these counties. Leishmania major is the dominant (99.1%) agent of leishmaniasis. Among 18 sandflies species detected in the province, Phlebotomus papatasi was the main vector of the disease with a mean infection rate of 9.2%. Peak of sandflies activity was recorded in the mid-July and mid-September. Rhombomys opimus and Meriones libycus were the main reservoirs of this disease with a mean infection rate of 25.3 and 31.8%. The density of sandflies and wild rodents were highest in the endemic areas for ZCL.
Conclusion: In Golestan Province, ZCL has been in a hypoendemic situation and in some areas in a mesoendemic situation and has increased significantly in recent years, so it is recommended to investigate the reasons for this increase.

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