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Showing 6 results for ebrahim

Nasser Behnampour, Ebrahim Hajizadeh, Shahriar Semnani, Farid Zayeri,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (10-2013)

Background & objective:

One of the common purposes of medical research is Determination of effective factors on the occurrence of event. Due to the interaction of risk factors regression models, discriminant analysis and classification procedures used. Uses of these models require making the assumption which in the medical data isn’t usually established. Therefore, alternative methods must be used. According to diversification of risk factors for of esophageal cancer, the purpose of this article is the Introduction and application of classification and regression tree for determination of risk factor for esophageal cancer in Golestan province.


Data of this article gathered from case-control study. Case group contain all confirmed cases of esophageal cancer that consist of 90 male and 60 female subjects in Golestan province during one year. Two control groups were considered for each case. Control groups were selected from family of patients and neighbors and matched for age, sex, ethnic and place of residence. Data was analyzed with classification and regression tree model and by using of R software. Gini criterion was used for selection of best splitting in each node and ROC surveyed accuracy of CRT model.


(ethnic factors) can be effective in esophageal cancer occurrences.

Results of Classification tree model showed that exposure to CT and X-ray dye (socio-environmental factors), unwashed hands after defecation, history of smoking (lifestyle factors) and family history of cancer


models results` interpretation are two essential beneficiary of these models which can use in medical sciences.

Tree models don’t require the establishment of no default for making model and feasibility of tree
Imaneh Bagheri, Robabeh Memarian, Ebrahim Hajizadeh, Behrooz Pakcheshm,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (5-2014)

Background & Objective: Myocardial infarction is one of the most common coronary artery diseases. One of the educational needs of patients, is how to perform sexual activities. Unfortunately, this issue is not being taught to patients, leading to problems in patients and their partners. This study was aimed to determine the effect of sex education on patients and their spouses› satisfaction after myocardial infarction. Method: This Quasi-experimental, non-randomized study was performed on 60 patients with myocardial infarction and their spouses in the city of Yazd whom were divided into two groups of experimental and control (60 in each group),in the year 1392. The main method of this study was the education and preparation of nurses and then educating patients by trained nurses and to assess sexual satisfaction based on the standard Larson›s questionnaire. The data were then statistically analyzed using SPSS version 16 using paired, independent t-test. Results: The average sexual satisfaction of patients in the experimental group before the intervention was 81.93 ± 12.47 and after the intervention 82.50 ± 12.57 While in the control group before the intervention the average satisfaction was 83.10 ± 17.36 and after 6 weeks 75.30 ± 15.42. Also the mean sexual satisfaction of partners in the test group before and after the intervention was 81.30 ± 12.47 and 82.07 ± 12.28 respectively. In the control group before the intervention, the average score was 82.50 ± 17.21 and after intervention it was 74.57 ± 15.30. There was significant difference between patients and spouses› sexual satisfaction scores in the experimental and control groups before and after the intervention (P=0.001). Conclusion: Sex education increased the sexual satisfaction among the tested group. Therefore, it is suggested to include programs in order to prepare nurses in terms of sex education of patients and their spouses in cardiac intensive wards.
Alireza Mahboub-Ahari, Sakineh Hajebrahimi, Fatemeh Sadeghi-Ghyassi, Mahmood Yousefi, Maryam Radin Manesh,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (5-2016)

Background & Objectives: Current study aimed to compare effectiveness and cost effectiveness of laser devices in BPH surgery. This study could provide clear evidences which could be used in prior approval and funding of such new emerging technologies.

Methods: A systematic search of related databases was performed to find Randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, Meta analyses and health technology assessment studies which had been published up to 2008.key words are: Laser، Holmium YAG laser (HOLEP)، Tolmium Laser، Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) and prostate. Data for clinical effectiveness was retrieved from the literature. Two Laser Assisted Technologies were analyzed in terms of efficacy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness and compared with Trans-Urethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) method from the perspective of Iran Ministry of Health. We used standard costing for analysis of costs. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed for the examination of calculated ICER in different probable scenarios.

Results: Literature review stressed that there is no statistically significant difference in clinical effectiveness of Lasers assisted devices and TURP technique. The length of hospital stay and severity of side effects are clinically and statistically lower in Laser Assisted devices. Estimated unit-cost of treatment for Tolmium, Holmium and TURP was 3403541, 3019261 and 2455794 (RLS) from MOH perspective and 340354, 4719261 and 4325794 from societal perspective.

Conclusion: Sensitivity analysis showed that, in most of the study scenarios TURP was dominant intervention because of low treatment costs. Tolmium laser only with the assumption of dual applicability and 200 patients per year would be considered as a cost-effective technology.

Alireza Mohebbi, Sanaz Baghban Rahimi, Alijan Tabarraei, Mohsen Saeedi, Mirsaeed Ebrahimzadeh, Leila Alizadeh, Amir Ghaemi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (10-2016)

Background and Objectives: Human papilloma virus (HPV) is known as the etiologic agent of cervical cancer and second common cancer among women. HPV viruses with the elevated risk of infection have more potentiality to cause cancer. The carcinogenesis in these viruses is accomplished by oncoproteins such as E7. Employing DNA vaccines which code specific antigens such as E7 is a novel therapeutic approach against such cancers.

Methods: In the present study, plasmid coding HPV16 E7 was administered intracutaneously to C57BL/6 tumoric mice models for investigation of its immunostimulating potential. PcDNA3.1+ vector was used as control vector. After immunization, spleen of animals were removed. Then, release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was evaluated to address the cytotoxic activity (CTL) induced by cellular immunity in spleenocytes. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) cytokines were also analyzed as profiles of Th1 and Th2, respectively. Anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels were also investigated in tumor microenvironments.

Results: Our results showed that CTL activity was higher among samples receiving HPV16 E7 coding vector in comparison to the group receiving pcDNA3.1+ control vector (P < 0.05). Levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 were also higher in the group receiving HPV16 E7 plasmid in comparison to the control group (P < 0.05). Similarly, IL-10 levels were significantly lower in tumor carrying mice groups receiving HPV16 DNA vaccine compare to PBS and pcDNA3.1 receiving control groups.

Conclusion: HPV16 E7 expressing DNA vaccine could increase the release of LDH due to immune system CTL activity. Elevation in IFN-γ and IL-4 levels as well as IL-10 reduction indicates an increase in both Th1 and Th2 profiles resulted by using potent DNA vaccine coding HPV16 E7 in tumor animal model.

Sanaz Baghbanrahimi, Hoorieh Soleimanjahi, Alireza Mohebbi, Mir Saeid Ebrahimzadeh, Leyla Alizade, Amir Ghaemi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (5-2017)

Background & Objective: Human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoproteins, including E6 and E7 are constitutively expressed in cervical cancer cells. These proteins are ideal targets to be used for developing therapeutic vaccines against existing HPV-associated carcinomas. The aim of this study was to measure the proliferation response rate of splenic lymphocytes derived from E7-HPV16 encoding plasmid injection on the tumor mouse model of papillomavirus.
Method: C57BL/6 mice were inoculated subcutaneous with 5× 10⁵ TC-1 cells in three times with two weeks intervals and then immunized with HPV-16 E7 DNA vaccine. The proliferation response of splenic cells was measured by MTT assay. IL12 cytokine was measured by ELISA assay and the mass of tumor was calculated with caliper for six weeks.
Results: Following the application of DNA vaccines containing E7 therapeutic gene, the proliferative response of splenic cells was provoked significanltly higher than the stimulation in control group (P<0.05). Moreover, the secretion of IL12 was significantly increased in vaccinated mice tumor tissue (P<0.05). The growth of tumor in vaccinated group was markedly decreased in comparison to PBS and pcDNA3 groups (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Our findings revealed that the application of DNA vaccine containing E7 gene in a tumor mouse model may induce anti-tumor cellular immune responses.

Raziyeh Shiri, Mandana Gholami, Hojatolah Nikbakht, Khosrow Ebrahim,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (7-2020)

Background and objective: Resistance training is a potential stimulus to increase muscle protein synthesis and the time under tension of muscle is one of the variables of strength training that contributes to its adaptation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training with slow and fast speeds on some anabolic and catabolic hormones in healthy young women. 
Material and Methods: This quasi- experimental study was conducted on 20 female students (mean age 21.65±2.03 years). The subjects were randomly and equally assigned to two groups with a time under tension of 1s-1s (fast contraction speed (FCS)) and 3s-3s (slow contraction speed (SCS)). The training load was the same in both groups and resistance training was done in a circular manner for six weeks, three days a week in eight stations. Blood samples were taken from the subjects to study the research variables before the training period and 48h after the last session of the training.
Results: There was no significant difference between the serum levels of GH(P = 0.82), IGF-1(P = 0.13) and cortisol(P = 0.59) in both groups, but the levels of myostatin in the fast group increased and in the slow group decreased, and the difference between the two groups was significant (P = 0.04). Also, in the strength test, the slow group experienced further increased strength. (P = 0.02)
Conclusion: : Although no significant changes in the levels of IGF-1, myostatin, and cortisol is observed in intragroup comparison at six weeks, resistance training with slow contraction speed can lead to further increases in the growth hormone levels and strength.

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