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Arezou Khosrojerdi, Kazem Mashayekhi, Hadi Zare Marzouni,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (10-2016)

Background and Objectives:  The application of herbal medicine has been rising in recent years. Therefore, it is logical to revise and revive these traditional drugs while identifying their mechanisms of action can result in developing new treatments for many diseases. Curcumin is the most important component of Turmeric with numerous therapeutic properties. We aimed to review the anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties of Curcumin and introduce it as a therapeutic molecule in the present article.

Methods: In this review, 121 articles were selected from authenticated electronic resources and scientific library databases such as Pubmed, Medline, Sciencedirect, WOS, DOAJ, SID, Iranmedex, Magiran and Google Scholar search engine in which Curcumin (Turmeric) had been evaluated as a therapeutic molecule from differeny aspects.

Results: Our findings from the literature revealed that immune responses against infectious and inflammatory factors could be fascilitated by Curcumin. However, the low solubility in water and minimal bioavailability which may lead to poor absorbance from gastrointestinal tract, quick metabolization and elimination from blood circulation are the most important problems during oral consumption.

Conclusion: According to the results of the present review article, Curcumin possesses efficient anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral and anti-parasitic properties. However, the low bioavailability of this substance has limited its treatment properties. Nowadays, several mechanisms have been proposed to increase the bioavailability which can improve its absorption.

Dr Ehsan Zarei, Dr Aziz Rezapoor, Dr Sima Marzban, Dr Payam Tabarsi, Vahid Bay,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (5-2017)

Background & Objective: Diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis requires high utilization of resources and costs and assessing the utilization of health care resources is always important for budgeting and long-term planning in a highly dynamic health care system. This study aimed to investigate the resources and service utilization pattern of patients with smear positive tuberculosis in the Azadshahr district, Golestan province.
Methods: In this retrospective and cross-sectional study, all new patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis who were registered and successfully completed their treatment at the health network of Azadshahr County, from April 2013 to October 2015, were entered to the study (45 patients). Data were collected from the patients’ records at the health care facilities, telephone interviews with patients and registry book of patients in the tuberculosis unite of health network.
Results: The average duration of treatment and DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, Short-Course) implementation was 195 and 158 days per patient, respectively.  The average drug consumption was 741 pills and the average number of X-ray and laboratory tests (smear test) was 1.7 and 4.4 per patient, respectively. Each patient had been visited on average 8.8 times by physician and 27% of patients were hospitalized, their average length of stay was 1.8 days.
Conclusion: Our findings showed that the utilization pattern of resources and services in patients with tuberculosis was approximately consistent with protocols developed by World Health Organization (WHO) and Ministry of Health of Iran often.

Salimi Hadi, Parya Hoseinzadeh, Dr Eghbal Zarei, Zeynab Badal Poor,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (5-2017)

Background & Objective:  Health is undoubtedly on of the most important aspects of human life issues and various personal and family factors can have a key role in this issue. The aim of the present study was to predict physical and mental health among married teachers of elementary schools in Karaj city based on components of decision making and problem solving, family solidarity, expression of love and physical appearance.
Methods: The research method was descriptive-analytical. The statistical population included all married teachers of elementary schools in Karaj city in the academic year 2014-2015.  358 individuals were selected based on Morgan table using random cluster sampling. Health Survey Questionnaire (SF36), Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), Samani Family Process Scale (SFPS) and Samani Family Content Scale (SFCS) were used to collect information. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regressions.
Results: Pearson correlation results showed that there was a significant relationship between physical and mental health with components of decision making and problem solving (r= 0/488, P< 0/05), family solidarity (r= 0/474, P< 0/05), expression of love(r= 0/356, P< 0/05) and physical appearance (r= 0/409, P< 0/05). Results of multiple regression showed that components of decision making and problem solving with value %23.7, family solidarity with %18.3, expression of love with %12.6 and physical appearance with %12.8, in total consist %30 of physical variance and mental health.
Conclusion: Decision making and problem solving, family solidarity, expression of love and physical appearance could be used to predict the physical and mental health. By improving these factors the physical and mental health in family members could be increased.

Abolfazl Moghadam, Dr Shahram Nazarian,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (10-2017)

Background & Objective: Gastroenteritis is one of the most common Salmonella infections in human which is caused by Salmonella serotypes especially S.enteritidis and S.typhimurium. The spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella strains is a serious global issue. Obtaining integrons is considered as one of the most important factors in multi-drug resistance among gram-negative microorganisms, particularly in intestinal bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular level of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons which are the most important integrons in Salmonella enteritidis isolated from patients using Multiplex PCR.
Methods: In this study, 567 stool and blood samples were collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis and Salmonella enteritidis were detected using culture method, standard biochemical test, and PCR. After DNA extraction, the presence of class 1, 2, and 3 of integrons was analyzed by multiplex PCR.
Results: From 567 samples, 48 strains were identified as Salmonella enteritidis. Of all 48 strains, 45 strains (95%) had the intI gene, 7 strains (14.5%) had the intII gene, and 2 strains (4%) had the intIII gene.
Conclusion: In this study, high incidence of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons was detected. Screening integrons as a sign of obtaining and expansion of antibiotic resistance could be considered as an important mechanism to deal with antibiotic resistance in microorganisms.

Shima Kazemi Malek Mahmoudi *, Kiomars Niaz Azari, Negin Jabari,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2018)

Background & Objectives: Knowledge-based economy is one of the major parts of the resistance economy and is recognized as the essentials of the information technology age. As one of the most important educational units and the custodian of community health, universities of medical sciences play a pivotal role in the success of resistance economy based on the knowledge-based economy. Among the employees of a university, the managers and faculty members play an important role in this regard. This study aimed to explain the dimensions of the resistance economy based on the knowledge-based economy in universities of medical sciences.
Materials and Methods: This qualitative research had a purposeful sampling method. Data were collected via library and field research. In the library method, the relevant specialized scientific texts and resources were exploited, whereas in the fieldwork, the researcher interviewed 24 faculty members. The interviews continued until saturation, and after being recorded, they were transcribed in Word software, coded, classified, and encoded by Microsoft OneNote. After that, the interviews were analyzed. It is notable that ethical considerations were observed during the research process. In the field method, the texts and books were evaluated and information searched in scientific and specialized websites. In addition, relevant articles recently published in valid international journals were translated, and primary data with the topic of translation were collected. In the field research and after coordination with faculty members and main elites with a history of article or innovation production or a management background, the opinions of the interviewees were asked about some questions in a semi-structured manner. In addition, three-stage coding, open coding, axial coding, and selective coding were applied in the research. To perform open coding, the main sentences were recorded as codes, followed by classifying the similar codes. In axial coding, the classes were related to their subclasses by comparing the primary classes of open coding and revolving the ones that resembled around the common axis. In selective coding, the integration and refining process of the categories was performed to form and present the model, and the dimensions were extracted and explained.
Results: From the perspective of the faculty members and key experts, resistance economy based on knowledge-based economy in universities of medical sciences could be explained in dimensions of information and communications technology, innovation and entrepreneurship in medical sciences, human resources and knowledge-based team, administrative and structural system, resources of equipment and abilities, policy and socio-environmental impacts. Each of these dimensions also included sub-groups and special themes.
Conclusion: According to the results of the study, it could be stated that moving towards the knowledge-based economy is one of the requirements of the country on the path to economic development, which involves dimensions such as information and communications technology, innovation and entrepreneurship, specialized knowledge-generating team, strategic planning and policy-making, formulating and ensuring the legal framework and legal system, supplying and developing electronic infrastructures, and paying attention to capabilities and resources of facilities.
Zahra Roustaeizade, Mohamad Hassan Akhavan Karbassi, Khatereh Kheirollahi, Ehsan Babaei Zarch,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2018)

Background and objectives: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a painful ulcerative lesion and its incidence is 20% in the society. Myrtus communis (myrtex) has been effective in the treatment of RAS. In this study, two different concentrations (2.5% versus 5%) of myrtex extract were evaluated to discover the most effective concentration for the treatment of RAS.
Methods: In this randomized, double-blind clinical trial, 60 patients with RAS were evaluated. Thirty patients used myrtex extract 5% and thirty patients used myrtex extract 2.5% (10 drops on lesion for 20 seconds 5 times per day). The severity of pain and burning sensation experienced by patients were measured by visual analogue scale (VAS) and the size of the lesion was estimated by transparent calibrated grid Data analysis was done by running t-test and repeated measures statistical test.
Results: The mean of the largest RAS diameter before treatment was decreased in both groups 1 day and 7 days after treatment (P-value=0.000); however, these differences were not significant in both groups (P-value =0.401). Furthermore, the severities of pain and burning sensation were decreased in both groups (p-value = 0.000). Nevertheless, this decrease was similar in both groups (P-value = 964).
Conclusion: Treatment with different concentrations of myrtex extract is effective in decreasing RAS diameter, pain, and burning sensation. In addition, the therapeutic efficacy of two different concentrations of myrtex extract (2.5% and 5%) was similar in this regard.
Razieh Nazari-Vanani, Naghmeh Sattarahmady, Negar Azarpira, Hossein Heli,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2018)

Due to low cost, ease of administration, and lack need for trained personnel, the oral route is the most convenient and accessible way to design different medicines that could be simply consumed by patients. Regardless of the great benefits of this route, the main challenge in the bioavailability of oral medications is gastrointestinal instability. Nanotechnology is used to improve the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. The self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system is an ideal method for improving the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. This system is a sustainable combination of drugs, oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants. The combination of these components causes the nanoemulsion of oil in water with the size of droplets in the range of nm, thereby increasing the bioavailability and oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. This system is highly regarded for its benefits and the ability to improve the healing properties of oral medications.
Bahareh Yazdanparast Chaharmahali, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani, Maghsood Peeri, Parvin Farzanegi Arkhazloo,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2018)

Background and objectives: Elderly is characterized by decreased cardiac function, which is widely associated with mitochondrial failure in cell death. Elderly causes heart apoptosis. Although the old heart is vulnerable to apoptosis, physical training and some supplements through different mechanisms could be effective in reducing apoptosis. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of interval training on some apoptotic parameters of Bax and Bcl2 cardiomyocytes in old female rats.
Methods: In an experimental study, 49 Wistar female rats (2 years old) were randomly assigned into 7 groups: control, saline, curcumin, moderate intensity training, moderate intensity training + curcumin, high intensity training, high intensity training + curcumin. The experimental groups received gavage doses of curcumin 30 mg / kg body weight three days a week via. The saline group also received the same amount of saline. Training groups had moderate and severe exercises on the treadmill for eight weeks, and three sessions per week. Forty-eight hours after the last training session and gavage, the animals were killed and their heart tissues were isolated to determine the levels of Bax and Bcl2.
Results: The results indicated that interval training and curcumin consumption could significantly increase the levels of Bcl2 and BAX and the BAX / Bcl2 ratio, the amount of which depends on the intensity of training. Moreover, the combination of training and curcumin had an antagonistic effect.
Conclusion: According to the results, physical activity and curcumin separately have a protective effect on the heart tissue; however, these two interventions do not enhance each other’s effect. Hence each one is suggested to be used separately.
Roohollah Gholikhani, Farbod Ebadi Fard Azar, Mohammad Javad Kabir, Mohammad Mehdi Tadayon,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2018)

Background & Objctives: With regard to unclear government approach in the insurance sector, multiplicity of rules, high share of households, improper population coverage and lack of cost-effective interventions, this study aimed to analyze the current status of basic health insurance in Iran and its distance from the desirable  status according to upstream documents. In addition, we attempted to propose a strategy in this regard.
Methods: This qualitative research was performed in 2017 in four stages of analysis of the current status of upstream documents and laws, round-table discussions of policy-makers, and presenting political options. In total, 20 subjects were selected by targeted sampling method with maximum diversity and based on the saturation rule. Data were collected by document analysis and interviews with authorities. Moreover, data were analyzed applying content analysis and the deductive approach.
Results: The results were classified into five areas of population coverage, financial resources management, financial protection of insured individuals, strategic purchasing, policy-making, and structure. There was a significant distance between the desirable  status based on upstream documents and laws and the current status. Recommendations: eliminating conflicts of interest in decision-making areas, complying with the public interest in making health decisions, observing the principles of the evaluation of regulatory effects, and assessing the economic and social effects of health decisions.
Conclusion: Despite the successful global experiences, the recommendations of the World Health Organization, and the existence of several optimal structures, proper models must be considered by the health system of the country through observing the relevant mechanisms and necessities.

Masoud Aman Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza Rostami, Mojtaba Raeisi, Mahnaz Tabibi Azar,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2018)

Preparation of nano-microfibers from biopolymers (e.g., proteins and polysaccharides) by using electrospinning technology has been considered by researchers due to the formation of fibers or particles at the nano and micrometer scales, high porosity level, adjustable dewatering behavior, and special mechanical behavior. These products can be used in the microencapsulation of bioactive compounds, stabilization of enzymes and smart packaging. In the electrospinning method, a high voltage is used to create a nanofibers-particles. When the electric field overcomes the surface tension of the droplet, a jet exits the polymeric solution and is formed along the collector surface as it stretches toward the collector panel of the nanofiber. Parameters including molecular weight and polymer microstructure characteristics such as electrical conductivity, viscosity, surface tension, and the electrical potential applied by the device, solution flow rate, distance between the tip of the needle and the collector plate and sometimes the material of the collector plate are effective in the formation of electrospun fibers and particles. In this review, we discussed and evaluated the production stages, the strengths and weaknesses of the fibers produced from proteins and polysaccharides, and their functional properties and potentials, especially in food and drug sciences.
Dr. Mahdi Azarnoosh, Mr. Hojjat Doostdar Noghabi,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2018)

Background and objectives: The importance of continuous monitoring and rapid and accurate informing of changes in blood components (e.g., percentage of hematocrit [HCT]), especially in acute conditions, has motivated researchers to use non-invasive measurement methods. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the association between blood HCT and photoplethysmographic signal and the possibility of increasing the accuracy of its measurement by optical method at three specific wavelengths.
Methods: In this study, photoplethysmographic signals were recorded at three different wavelengths for 25 male and female subjects (mean age of 37.56±10.40 years), who referred to the laboratory to assess their blood HCT percentage. We extracted the peak value of the signal after calibrating a special probe with a standard pulse oximetry system and applying the necessary preprocesses on the received signal. Eventually, in addition to the estimation of HCT level, we assessed the level of correlation between the optical method results and laboratory data applying Pearson’s, Kendall’s, and Spearman’s correlation coefficients.
Results: Comparison of HCT measurement by the optical method and reference levels measured by standard laboratory technique in 25 subjects showed a mean error of 0.6±0.25%. In addition, evaluation of the relationship between data of the percentage of laboratory HCT with mean of 43.43±3.43 and data obtained by photoplethysmographic signals with mean of 43.31±3.27 by three Pearson’s, Kendall’s, and Spearman’s methods demonstrated that the data of the two techniques had a significant correlation of 0.949, 0.860, and 0.955, respectively (P<0.01).
Conclusion: Given the high correlation of characteristics of the photoplethysmographic signal at three wavelengths with blood HCT and level of accuracy of our findings, the proposed method could be exploited for accurate, clean and cost-effective monitoring of HCT level.
Maryam Kazemipoor, Fatemeh Owlia, Mehri Esfandyar, Ali Dehghani, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Amir Houshang Mehrparvar, Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi, Masoud Mirzaei,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (7-2019)

Backgrounds and Objectives: Afew large population-based studies have been conducted on the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in relation to fertility status in the Iranian population. The aim of study was determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in relation to fertility status in women participants of Shahedieh cohort study. 
Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 4935 women who participated in the Shahedieh cohort study. The age range of participants was 35-71 years with a mean age of 47.12 years. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions considering fertility variables including pregnancy, number of pregnancy, oophorectomy, tubectomy, hysterectomy, infertility, menopause, normal menopause, and abortion, application of infertility and oral contraceptive drugs and hormone replacement therapy were recorded.
 Results: The total prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in the studied women were 3.8%. The most commonly affected age group was 40-49 years, followed by 30-39, 50-59 and 60-71 years, respectively. Considering the fertility variables, only menopause (P=0.047) and normal menopause (P=0.024) significantly related to the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions.
Conclusions: The findings of the present study provide information on the prevalence of the oral mucosal lesions considering fertility status in a large population-based study in Iran. With due attention to the higher prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in menopause women, an improved comprehension of oral manifestations at menopause and preventive and treatment approaches during this period should be programmed with health care services to meet the needs of patients deservingly.

Leila Fozouni, Maryam Yaghoobpour, Ania Ahani Azari,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (7-2019)

 Background and objectives: Acinetobacter is a genus of opportunistic pathogens that are commonly found in the environment. Given the unique ability of these bacteria to survive in the hospital, they are considered as one of the main causes of hospital-acquired infections. The emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp., particularly Acinetobacter baumannii has become a major health threat worldwide. In this study, we investigate antibacterial effects of probiotic isolates from goat milk on clinical isolates of A. baumannii.
Methods: In this study, 100 clinical specimens were taken from patients hospitalized in six hospitals in the Golestan Province, north of Iran. Following isolation and identification of A. baumannii strains, antibiotic resistance patterns of the isolates were investigated using the Kirby-Bauer method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI-2015) guidelines. Probiotic bacteria in goat milk were isolated and identified by culture in MRS and M17 media and carbohydrate fermentation tests. Antibacterial effects of the probiotic bacteria against resistant A. baumannii isolates were evaluated using the agar well diffusion method.
Results: Overall, 55% of the isolates were identified as A. baumannii. The highest resistance rates were observed against tobramycin (76.3%), mezlocillin (74.5%) and cefotaxime (74.5%). Resistance to levofloxacin, tetracycline, imipenem and minocycline was detected in 72.7%, 72.7%, 70.9% and 29.1% of the isolates, respectively. The most common probiotic isolates were Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus piscium (30% each). The highest and lowest effects were exerted by Lactococcus lactis (34.54%) and Lactobacillus bulgaricus (3.63%), respectively.
Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the prevalence of drug-resistant A. baumannii strains is high in the hospitals. Given the promising antimicrobial effects of the isolated probiotic bacteria, goat milk can be recommended as an adjuvant therapy or an alternative to common antibiotics for improving treatment outcome of infections caused by drug-resistant A. baumannii.
Khatereh Kheirollahi, Seyyed Hossein Hekmati Moghadam, Gooya Kabir, Zhaleh Zare Mehrjardi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (7-2019)

Background and objectives: patients undergoing Chemotherapy are severely susceptible to infections due to a compromised immune system and also their oral cavity is a great place for microorganisms and fungi to grow. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of different strains of Candida from oral lesions of these patients.
Methods and Materials: This descriptive study was performed on 128 patients undergoing chemotherapy in teaching hospitals of Yazd, which was three weeks pass receiving their first medicine. Oral samples were prepared from swabs and then cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar culture media for evaluation of yeast growth, colonization, and identification of species. Samples were examined under the microscope and recorded. Finally, the data were analyzed by SPSS17 software, Chi-square, and Man-Whitney tests.
Results:128 patients participated in this study, which included 45 males (35.15%) and 83 females (64.85%) with an average age of 40.16 ± 19.95 years. 84 patients (62.65%) had candida in their oral cavity, of which 79 were candida albicans and 5 were Non-albicans Candida. No significant correlation was found between the type of candidates, type of cancer and the frequency of Candida albicans with the age and sex of the patients (P-value <0.05).
Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the prevalence of Candida albicans in patients undergoing chemotherapy is higher than Non-albicans Candida. Patients with leukemia are more susceptible to Candida infections.
Paria Motahari, Fatemeh Pournaghi Azar, Parisa Rasouly,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2019)

Background and objectives: Most studies have identified interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as a key role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus (OLP). Recent studies have also shown a link between IFN-γ (+874 A/T) gene polymorphism and OLP. The purpose of the present meta-analysis is to investigate the relationship between IFN-γ (+874 A/T) gene polymorphism and susceptibility to OLP.
Methods: A systematic search of resources to investigate the association between IFN-γ and OLP from Google scholar, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Scopus, Proquest, Ovid and Web of science (from 2000 to April 2019) completed. Two individuals independently assessed the quality of the articles. Endnote X5 resource management software was used to organize, study titles and abstracts as well as identify duplicates. A random effect model was also used to perform the meta-analysis.
Results: Four IFN-γ (+874 A/T) polymorphism studies with 297 patients in the case group and 621 healthy controls in the 4 different countries were included. After meta-analysis, a significant association was found between IFN-γ polymorphism (+874 A/T) and OLP. (T vs A: odds ratio (OR) = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.28-2.04; TT vs AA: OR = 2.67; 95% CI = 1.6- 4.45; AT vs AA: OR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.6- 4.45; TT vs AT + AA: OR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.13-2.64; AT + TT vs AA: OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.28-2.43)
Conclusion: Based on this meta-analysis, there was a positive relationship between IFN-γ (+874 A/T) gene polymorphism and the risk of OLP. The findings showed that increasing TT genotypes significantly increased susceptibility to OLP in comparison with other genotypes.

Faegheh Jafari Amoli, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani, Parvin Farzanegi Arkhazloo,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2019)

Background and objectives: It has been reported that deep-fried oils (DFOs) used in the preparation of fast foods can affect the immune system. On the other hand, regular physical activity and proper nutrition, in addition to affecting physical function, have a tremendous impact on the immune system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of aerobic training (T) and octopamine (O) consumption in the heart tissue of rats fed DFO.
Methods: In this experimental study, 25 male Wistar rats with mean age of 20 weeks old and weighing 300- 350 were purchased and divided into 5 groups of 5 rats, including: 1) control, 2) DFO, 3) DFO+T, 4) DFO+O and 5) DFO+T+O. During four weeks, groups 2- 5 received DFO by gavage; groups 3- 5 ran on treadmill (with speed of 50% Vo2max in the first week which reached 65% Vo2max in the last week) five sessions per week and 20 minutes per session and groups 4-5 received 81 μmol/kg octopamine supplement peritoneally for 5 days per week. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene expression were measured in heart tissue.
Results: DFO significantly increased NF-κB (P=0.005) and TNF-α (P=0.001) gene expression levels; T significantly on decreased NF-κB (P=0.01) and TNF-α (P=0.007) gene expression levels; O consumption significantly decreased NF-κB (P=0.001) and TNF-α (P=0.001) gene expression levels; however, the interactive effects of T and O consumption on NF-κB (P=0.57) and TNF-α (P=0.20) gene expression levels was not significant.
Conclusion: It seems that T and O consumption alone have anti-inflammatory effects on the heart tissue of rats fed DFO, however T and O do not have anti-inflammatory interactive effects.
Mohammad Mousaei, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani, Maghsoud Peeri, Seyed Ali Hosseini,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2019)

Background and objectives: Controlling nutrition and exercise can be two important strategies in controlling tendon health. It has been reported that resistance training and palm pollen separately can improve Scleraxis (Scx) in tendon tissue; so present study aimed to investigate the interactive effects of resistance training with ethanolic extract of palm pollen on Scx protein and gene expression levels in the tendon tissue of male adult rats.
Methods: In this experimental study 30 male adult rats divided into 6 groups of 6 rats including: 1) sham, 2) training, 3) palm pollen, 4) testosterone, 5) training + palm pollen, and 6) training + testosterone. During 4 weeks, groups 2, 5, and 6 performed resistance trainings for five sessions per week; groups 3 and 5 received 100 mg/kg palm pollen for five days per week via gavage and groups 4 and 6 received 2 mg/kg testosterone propionate peritoneally. Scx protein and gene expression levels were measured in tendon tissue by Western blot and real-time PCR methods respectively. Shapiro- Wilk, one way ANOVA with Tukey’s post- hoc tests were used to analyze the findings (P≤0.05).
Results: Training significantly increased Scx protein levels (P=0.005); palm pollen significantly increased Scx gene expression levels (P=0.001); training + palm pollen significantly increased Scx protein and gene expression levels (P=0.001) also training + palm pollen had more favorable effect on increase of Scx protein and gene expression levels compared to training and palm pollen alone (P=0.001).
Conclusion: It seems that resistance training simultaneously with palm pollen administration can have a more favorable effect than each one alone on improving Scx protein and gene expression levels in tendon tissue of male adult rats.
Abdol Kheder Keshtvarz, Maghsoud Peeri, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani, Seyed Ali Hosseini,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2019)

Background and objective: Exercise and nutrition are two factors influencing the improvement of inflammatory markers in patients with colon cancer. Aim of present study was to investigate the effect of aerobic training (AT) with Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea) Seed (PS) on toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and TLR-4 in colon tumor tissue of rats with colon cancer.
Methods: In this experimental study 30 adults rats were divided into five groups of six rats including: 1) healthy control, 2) control, 3) training, 4) PS, and 5) training + PS. Colon cancer induced by intra-peritoneal injection of azoxymethane in groups 2- 5. During eight weeks, groups 3 and 5 performed AT for five sessions per week also groups 4 and 5 received 75 mg/kg PS intra-peritoneally. TLR2 and TLR4 protein levels were measured by ELISA method. For review the normal distribution and data Shapiro- wilk was used and for statistical analysis of data one way ANOVA with Tukey’s post- hoc tests were used (P≤0.05).
Results: Training had not significant effect on TLR-2 (P=0.91) and TLR-4 (P=0.95); PS and training + PS significantly decreased TLR-2 and TLR-4 (P=0.001) also training + PS had more favorable effect on decrease of TLR-2 compare to training and PS alone (P=0.001).
Conclusion: Although PS alone can improve TLR-2 and TLR-4 levels in colon tumor tissue of adult rats with colon cancer, nevertheless it appears that AT along with PS have more favorable effects on improvement of TLR-2 compare to training and PS alone.

Sayede Shadi Nazari , Solmaz Norouzi, Mohammad Asghari Jafar-Abadi,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (3-2020)

Background and objective: Prevalence and the spread of novel Coronavirus (2019-ncov) cause significant life and financial destruction worldwide and is the cause of severe respiratory infection in humans. The present study briefly reviews the latest information on how the virus is distributed around the world. The main question of the study are: 1- In which geographic regions of the world is the Coronavirus more concentrated? 2- Is the distribution of the Coronavirus geographically stable?
Material and Methods: To answer these questions, we first began collecting and studying the available scientific resources. The required data was obtained from a daily report of confirmed, recovered, and deaths by the Coronavirus separated by state which was collected from January 22, 2020 to Jun 19, 2020. Based on analyzing available patterns in spatial statistics tool in ArcGIS and geostatistical models, we examined how the Coronavirus was distributed around the world.
Results: The spread of the disease is increasing all over the world. Using the results of Map 1, it is seen that the spread of Corona virus has a trend and starts in China and then spreads to the Middle East, Europe and the United States in a linear manner. The results also show that the prevalence of mortality is higher than that of recovery. Central mean and median for all types (Confirmed, Recovered and death) are close to each other. Death mean and median was close to Western countries and Recovered mean and median was close to Eastern countries, while confirmed mean and median was located in the center.
Conclusion: Based on spatial statistics tool in ArcGIS and geostatistical models, we examined how the Coronavirus was distributed around the world. Our results showed that the spread of Corona virus had a trend and started in China and then spread to the Middle East, Europe and the United States in a likely linear manner.

Abdossaleh Zar, Fatemeh Ahmadi,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (7-2020)

Background and objective: Pregnancy, childbirth, and motherhood are processes that have important social and emotional consequences for every woman.  The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity on sleep quality of women with Natural Childbirth and cesarean section.
Material and Methods: Among women referred to Jahrom Health Center in the year 2017-2018 who had childbirth.  210 volunteers were included in the study (110 normal deliveries, 100 cesarean sections). They were divided into active and inactive groups based on their physical activity. The Petersburg sleep questionnaire was used for data collection.
Results: There was a significant difference between the two groups in daily performance variables (p = 0.005) and total sleep quality score (p = 0.001). It was also found that active women with cesarean section had better condition than inactive women with cesarean section. There was a significant difference between the two groups in the variables of sleep disorders (p = 0.005) and total sleep quality score (p = 0.001).
Conclusion: Exercise and physical activity can have a positive effect on the quality of sleep after postpartum and cesarean section. Findings can inform interventions designed to improve postpartum sleep via increasing opportunities for exercise among postpartum women.

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