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Raziye Sadat Hosseiny, Masoume Alijanpour Agha Maleki, Shahram Etemadifar, Hossein Rafiei,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (5-2016)

Background and Objectives: Human is a multidimensional creature and spiritual domain is the central dimension which has an undeniable effect on gaining health. The most important part of nursing care with family based approach is to help people in achieving optimal level of health. On the other hand, religious attitudes and spiritual health is an important domain of life in ageing period. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the religious attitudes and spiritual health among elderly inpatients in Shahrekord hospitals.

Methods: This descriptive correlational study was conducted in 1392 in Shahrekord hospitals. A total of 308 geriatric patients who were admitted to a surgical ward, were recruited through random sampling. Two sets of questionnaires regarding religious and spiritual health were used as the instruments. After collecting the data, descriptive (frequency, mean, variance, standard deviation) and analytical (independent t test, Pearson correlation) statistics were used by SPSS statistical software.

Results: The results showed that 68.8% of patients possessed large religious attitude with an average of 140.68 ±30.14. Spiritual health in 51.3 percent of samples was described to be low while the obtained average score was 86.18 ± 16.61. However, Pearson test showed that there is a positive significant correlation between religious attitudes and spiritual health (r =0.83, P =0.05).

Conclusions: The present study revealed that there is a significant relationship between religious attitudes and spiritual health and people with high religious attitudes have high spiritual health.

Samaneh Rafiei, Ali Asghar Ravasi, Abbas Ali Gaeini,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2021)

Background and Objective: Trimethyltin (TMT) is an organotin neurotoxin which causes cognitive disorders by the induction of selective damage in hippocampus. The present study evaluates the effect of 8-week swimming exercise (EX) and Gallic acid (GA) for working and avoidance memory, hippocampal oxidative stress indices and brain neurotrophic factor expression (BDNF) in rats after TMT intoxication.
Material and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 Wistar mature male rats were randomly put in 5 groups of control, TMT+NS, TMT+GA200, TMT+EX, TMT+GA200+EX. 24 hours after TMT intoxication (8mg/kg), 8 weeks of swimming exercise (3 sessions per week), and treatment with GA (200mg/kg) were done. Then, the evaluation of working and passive avoidance memory was performed respectively by the use of Y maze and shuttle box. Hippocampal level of catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and BDNF were done by ELISA method, and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was performed by thiobarbituric acid (MDA). Statistical differences between groups were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test.
Results: The significant decrease in the percentage of alteration behaviors, latency time to the dark room, along with BDNF, CAT, TAC and increase of MDA were seen in TMT+NS group compared to control group (p<0.01). Swimming exercise in the interaction with GA ameliorates working and avoidance memory by increasing BDNF, CAT, TAC, and decrease of MDA compared to TMT+NS group (p<0.05).
Conclusion: It seems that swimming exercise and GA administration improves cognitive symptoms following TMT intoxication simultaneously by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing BDNF expression.

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