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Sara Sohrabvandi, Seyed Amir Mohgammad Mortazavian, Hamed Jahani, Mohammad Javad Eivani, Ameneh Nematollahhi, Rozita Komeili,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (5-2015)

Background and objectives: Fortification of beverages with new functional ingredients such as prebiotics is one of the recent progresses in the field of juice production. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of adding some prebiotics such as Inulin and Tagatose on physicochemical and sensory properties of orange juice.

Methods: The prebiotic compounds (Inulin and Tagatose) along with sucrose were added to orange juice in specific proportions and then pasteurized at 90°C. Orange juice treated samples were kept at 4°C (refrigerator temperature) and 25°C (room temperature) for 3 months. Physicochemical (Brix, acidity, sucrose content and pH) and sensory properties of treated samples were evaluated within time intervals of one month.

Results: The results showed that storage temperature had no significant effect on pH, Brix and acidity of all treatments (P>0.05). On the other hand, total sugar content of all treatments had decreased significantly during storage (P<0.05), as the greatest decrease was observed in Inulin-3/Sucrose-3 treatment keeping at room temperature with 33.7%. It was reported that no change in the transparency treatments was observed (P>0.05). Storage of treatments at room temperature had decreased the acceptance of flavors significantly (P<0.05).

Conclusion: The result of this study showed that Inulin in combination with sucrose and Tagatose could be used to produce salutary juice with desirable sensory properties.

Hamidollah Iri, Dr Ghahreman Mahmoudi, Dr Mohammad Ali Jahani Tiji,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (10-2017)

Background & Objective: The fair distribution of medical specialists among the population of a country is one of the requirements for the public health. We aimed to investigating the distribution of medical specialists using Gini coefficient in all governmental hospitals in two medical universities of Golestan (15 hospitals) and Mazandaran (23 hospitals) provinces.
Methods: The present practical study was conducted using descriptive and analytical methods. The research data including the number of physicians, population and number of active beds in each city and province were obtained from the deputy of treatment of medical universities in each province. The Lorenz curve and the Gini coefficient were used to analyze the distribution of specialists using Excel software. T-test was used to compare the Gini coefficients between the two provinces. Multiple regression tests were performed using SPSS software version 16 to investigate the relationship between variables.
Results: The results showed that Gini coefficients on the basis of population in Mazandaran province were within optimum limit (less than 0.2). However, Gini coefficients on the basis of population in Golestan province were undesirable (more than 0.2) and there was also an inequality in the Gini coefficients based on the number of population between the two provinces of Golestan and Mazandaran (P=0.000, t=17.89).
Conclusion: According to the findings, the distribution of specialist physicians is desirable in Mazandaran province based on population. However, there was inequality in the distribution of specialist physicians in Golestan province. The accurate and fair estimation of the required human resources and the distribution on the basis of population and required indicators could lead to a reduction in the cost of treatment for families and better efficiency of health resources.

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