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Nasser Behnampour, Ebrahim Hajizadeh, Shahriar Semnani, Farid Zayeri,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (10-2013)

Background & objective:

One of the common purposes of medical research is Determination of effective factors on the occurrence of event. Due to the interaction of risk factors regression models, discriminant analysis and classification procedures used. Uses of these models require making the assumption which in the medical data isn’t usually established. Therefore, alternative methods must be used. According to diversification of risk factors for of esophageal cancer, the purpose of this article is the Introduction and application of classification and regression tree for determination of risk factor for esophageal cancer in Golestan province.


Data of this article gathered from case-control study. Case group contain all confirmed cases of esophageal cancer that consist of 90 male and 60 female subjects in Golestan province during one year. Two control groups were considered for each case. Control groups were selected from family of patients and neighbors and matched for age, sex, ethnic and place of residence. Data was analyzed with classification and regression tree model and by using of R software. Gini criterion was used for selection of best splitting in each node and ROC surveyed accuracy of CRT model.


(ethnic factors) can be effective in esophageal cancer occurrences.

Results of Classification tree model showed that exposure to CT and X-ray dye (socio-environmental factors), unwashed hands after defecation, history of smoking (lifestyle factors) and family history of cancer


models results` interpretation are two essential beneficiary of these models which can use in medical sciences.

Tree models don’t require the establishment of no default for making model and feasibility of tree
Seyyed Kamaloddin Mirkarimi, Mohammad Aryaie, Aziz Kamran, Hasan Farid,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (10-2014)

Background & Objective: Self-care means enabling individuals to manage special circumstances, such as illness, chronic diseases and having more control over life. Women are more susceptible to serious health risks such as obesity and overweight compared to men, therefore this study was conducted in the city of Gorgan to determine the knowledge, attitude and behavior of women regarding the self-care behavior. Method: In this descriptive- analytical study, 420 women referred to health centers of Gorgan were recruited through cluster random sampling. Data were collected using the standard general self-care questionnaire. Information such as barriers and facilitators of self-care behavior, knowledge, desire and performing self-care behaviors of individuals were evaluated. Data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics and analytical tests in SPSS software (version16). Results: The mean age of samples was 33.07 ± 12.2 years. Among all the tested individuals, 49% (n=206) had a satisfactory knowledge about Self-care, 36.4% (n=152) had a tendency to perform self-care and 21.8 percent (n=92) were performing self-care related activities. There was a significant relationship between knowledge and performing self-care (P= 0.0001), attitudes and performing self-care (P=0.0001) and between knowledge and behavior (P=0.0001). Conclusion: Due to the relative knowledge, attitude and unfavorable performance of individuals, appropriate educational interventions are recommended to increase knowledge. Moreover the awareness and attitude of the participants should also be changed using attitude change techniques such as in-depth interviews and subsequently its improvements will occur.
Dr Ahmad Jameii Khosroshahi, Mahmood Samadi, Dr Elnaz Skandartaj, Dr Agha Ali Yar-Makooyi, Farid Karkon Shayan,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (5-2017)

Background & Objective: Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is one of the common complications of congenital heart diseases in children. The natriuretic peptides such as BNP, ANP and NT-Pro BNP are secreted in response to atrial and/or ventricular stretch. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between pulmonary hypertension with BNP serum level and the quantity of left to right shunt based on echocardiography findings in children with congenital heart disease.
Method: In an analytical-descriptive study, 30 children with congenital heart disease after going through echocardiography and being confirmed to have one of VSD, ASD or PDA, were enrolled. The BNP serum level, quantity of the left to right shunt and systolic pulmonary pressure were measured.
Results: In the present study, 13 patients were male (43.3%) and 17 (56.7%) were female. The average BNP serum level of patients was 194.9 ± 21.2 (pg/ml). There was a significant relationship between systolic pulmonary pressure and BNP level among patients (P<0.001). There was also a positive correlation between average serum level of BNP and quantity of the left to right shunt (P=0.018).
Conclusion: On the basis of echocardiography findings, there was a positive correlation between systolic pulmonary pressure with BNP serum level and the quantity of left to right shunt. Therefore, it can be helpful among patients whom the pulmonary arterial pressure cannot be measured for any reason.

Seyed Farid Nourbakhsh, Reza Fadayevatan, Mahtab Alizadeh-Khoei, Farshad Sharifi,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (10-2017)

Background & Objective: Dementia is associated with serious effects on memory, cognition and ability to carry out daily activities. There is evidence that impairment in activity of daily living (ADL) is even reported among elder patients who suffer from mild cognitive disorders. Therefore, we aimed to determine the status of ADL and instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) in healthy and cognitive impaired elderlies (MCI, Mild, and Moderate dementia).
Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was conducted in 2016, 300 elderlies (60 years and above) were selected using a classified cluster sampling in four groups (each group of 75 individuals). These groups comprised of healthy old people and elderlies with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild to moderate dementia that were residing in rural areas of Isfahan and Tehran and were classified between stages of 1 to 5 according to the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS). All individuals in four groups were assessed by ADL and IADL evaluation tools. The geriatric depression scale (GDS-15) and DSM-IV scale were performed on healthy elderlies by a physician to confirm the lack of mild dementia or depression. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20 software and using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance and independent samples T-test.
Results: According to the cognitive impairment screening results by GDS, 76 elderlies were healthy, 75 were in MCI group, 72 individuals were diagnosed with mild dementia and 77 were suffering from moderate dementia. The mean scores of ADL tool on the basis of different cognitive stages of elderlies were statistically significant (p<0.001). The ADL scores among elderlies were lowered by increasing the severity of cognitive impairment. Moreover, the average scores of IADL among elderlies with different cognitive status were significantly different (p<0.001). The IADL scores in cases with moderate dementia were markedly declined in comparison to healthy subjects and elderlies with MCI and mild dementia.
Conclusion: Although applying the ADL and IADL tools are not considered as gold standards in rapid assessment of cognitive impairments among elderlies, they could be considered as useful and user friendly tools to detect performance alterations in elderlies with dementia to provide healthcare by geriatric teams.

Farideh Kaikhosravi, Farhad Daryanoosh, Maryam Koushkie Jahromi, Javad Nemati,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (3-2020)

Background and objective: Proper exercise and nutrition can help prevent bone disorders in old age, therefore present study aimed to investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) with genistein (Ge) on biomechanical properties of femur bone in elderly female rats.
Material and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 elderly female rats with mean age of 18- 24 months and mean weight of 220.15±15.28 g were divided into five groups of eight rats including: 1) control (C), 2) sham (Sh), 3) HIIT, 4) HIIT + Ge, and 5) Ge. During eight weeks groups 3 and 4 performed HIIT for three sessions per week with an intensity of 90 to 95% of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) in high intensity intervals and 40 to 45% VO2max in low intensity intervals and groups 4 and 5 received 60 mg/kg/day Ge peritoneally. Maximum bending strength (Fmax) measured with three- point bending test and serum levels of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus were measured by o-Cresolphthalein and molybdate methods, respectively. Shapiro- Wilk, one way ANOVA with Tukey’s post- hoc tests were used for analysis of data (P≤0.05).
Results: HIIT (P=0.02), Ge (P=0.001) and HIIT+Ge (P=0.001) significantly increased Fmax also Ge (P=0.04) and HIIT+Ge (P=0.03) had more favorable effect on increasing Fmax compare to HIIT nevertheless HIIT, Ge and HIIT+Ge had not significant effect on Ca and phosphorus (P≥0.05).
Conclusion: Although HIIT and Ge alone can enhance Fmax in femur of elderly female rats, nevertheless HIIT+Ge has more favorable effect on increase of Fmax compare to HIIT.

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