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Zahra Amirkhani Dehkordi, Nooshin Naghsh, Heydar Aqbaba,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (10-2012)

Background and objective:

The use of silver nanoparticles is one of the functional areas of nanotechnology. These nanoparticles have an antibacterial and antifungal quality. The active ions released form silver nanoparticles can produce free radicals and damage different types of cell. Considering the importance of hemoglobin, this study investigates Comparison of injective and contact effect of silver nanoparticles on the rate of hemoglobin changes in male rats.

Materials and Methods:

In this experimental study were 72 male adult Wistar rats with a mean weight of 225 to 250 grams. The animals were randomly divided into ten groups of eight rats. Nanoparticles were administered to treatment groups using the injective method through intraperitoneal (IP) and the skin contact method with concentrations of 50, 100, 200, and 400 ppm. In order to assimilate the shock resulted by injection and contact, physiologic serum of the same amount was injected to rats of control group or contacted to their skin. Then, blood was drawn from the internal corner of the rats’ eye using capillary tubes. The mean level of hemoglobin in the rats’ blood in the treatment and control group was compared 12 days after the treatment. To compare the means, ANOVA test was used.


The results showed the dependence of dose and the rate of hemoglobin changes in intraperitoneal injection and the lack of effect of silver nanoparticles on hemoglobin changes in skin contact.


The effectof the injection of silver nanoparticles on the rate of hemoglobin has been dose-dependent. But the skin contact method has had no effects on the rate of hemoglobin. It seems that a low concentration of nanoparticles and a short period of time cause a lack of effect on the factor.
Zahra Moshtagh Eshgh, Ali Akbar Aghaeinezhad, Akram Peyman, Aref Amirkhani, Fakhredin Taghinejad, Ali Akbar Sheikhi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (10-2014)

Background & Objective: Job burnout is one of the inevitable consequences of occupational stress. Professional staff of social services are the first candidates of burnout, therefore this study was aimed to determine the relationship between occupational stresses with job burnout in pre-hospital emergency staff. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 206 employees, working in 44 pre-hospital emergency bases in Golestan province were enrolled in years 2011-12. Information was obtained by occupational stress questionnaire and Maslach Burnout and then using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient test, ANOVA, T-Test and Tukey tests the data were analyzed in SPSS software. Results: 117 individuals (75.5 percent) had moderate to high stress. Organizational factors (21.62 ± 6.05) with a mean score from 100 (65.51) had the highest score in causing stress and physical factors (10.44 ± 3.43), occupational (37.12 ± 1.12) and group factors (10.54 ± 1.12) were second and third respectively. Among all the subjects, 76.6% had experienced moderate to high burnout. There was a significant statistical difference between job stress and age (P=0.02) , type of employment (P=0.048) and between burnout and education (P=0.028) in the overall level of job stress and burnout significant correlation was observed (r=0.335, P<0.001). Conclusion: Emergency staffs work in a stressful environment, which leads to burnout, thus identifying stressors and ways to overcome these factors, especially in the corporate (management) dimension can help reduce burnout.

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