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Masoomeh Simbar, Fatemeh Abdi, Farzaneh Zaheri, Pooran Mokhtari, Tahmineh Dadkhah Tehrani, Roonak Shahoi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (5-2014)

Background & Objective: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Female genital mutilation (FGM) involves the withdrawal or damage to a part or all of the external genitalia of women without a medical reason. According to the WHO, 100 to 140 million girls and women worldwide are circumcised and in various studies, the numerous consequences of this action are mentioned. In this review, we investigated the studies on the outcomes of FGM. Method: In this study, the results of studies on the effects of FGM between years 2013 – 2003 in PubMed, Medline, Cochran library, Cinahl, Emro, WHO, Iranmedex and SID databases were investigated. In order to gather the information, first, articles that had one of the following keywords in their text (cutting / female genital mutilation, Infibulations, Female circumcision) either alone or with words Obstetrics / Gynecologic Consequence Psychiatric consequence health outcome, were searched and at the end a sum of 74 articles were collected. Results: FGM is accompanied with complications, such as infection, painful intercourse, frequent urination, constant bleeding, painful menstruation, infection during pregnancy, and possibility of developing hepatitis and infertility in women. But since only few case-control studies have been conducted on investigating these effects in different countries, it›s not possible to deduce from some complications associated with FGM. Conclusion: FGM is one of the manifestations of human rights violations and violence against women and girls who have the right to have a healthy body. Despite the global efforts, there are still areas of the world that respect this tradition, Thus stronger and more serious measures to stop such actions are strongly suggested.
Zinab Shykholeslami, Ahmad Abdi, Alireza Barari, Seyed Ali Hosseini,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2019)

Background and objectives: Proper nutrition and exercise are two effective factors in improving liver function in old age. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic training (T) with consumption of Citrus aurantium (CA) on SIR1 and PGC-1α gene expression levels in the liver tissue of elderly rats.
Method: In this experimental study, 25 elderly female rats were placed in five groups of 5 rats, including 1) control, 2) sham, 3) CA, 4) T and 5) T+CA. Over the course of eight weeks, groups 4 and 5 ran on the treadmill three sessions per week at 65 to 75 percent of the maximum running speed, and groups 3 and 5 received 300 mg/kg/day of CA extract peritoneally. Forty- eight hours after the last training session and CA consumption, SIR1 and PGC-1α gene expression levels in the liver tissue were measured by real-time PCR method. In order to analyze the findings, the Shapiro-Wilk, one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post- hoc tests were used (P≤0.05).
Results: T had a significant effect on increasing SIR1 (P = 0.009) and PGC-1α (P = 0.001) gene expression levels; CA had a significant effect on reducing SIR1 gene expression levels and increasing PGC-1α (P = 0.001); T + CA had a greater effect on increasing PGC-1α gene expression levels than T and CA (P = 0.001).
Conclusion: Although eight weeks of T and CA consumption alone appear to improve PGC-1α gene expression levels in the liver tissue of elderly rats, concurrent T and CA consumption has more favorable effects than each of them alone.

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