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Showing 25 results for Subject: Basic Medical Sciences

Abolfazl Moghadam, Dr Shahram Nazarian,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (10-2017)

Background & Objective: Gastroenteritis is one of the most common Salmonella infections in human which is caused by Salmonella serotypes especially S.enteritidis and S.typhimurium. The spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella strains is a serious global issue. Obtaining integrons is considered as one of the most important factors in multi-drug resistance among gram-negative microorganisms, particularly in intestinal bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular level of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons which are the most important integrons in Salmonella enteritidis isolated from patients using Multiplex PCR.
Methods: In this study, 567 stool and blood samples were collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis and Salmonella enteritidis were detected using culture method, standard biochemical test, and PCR. After DNA extraction, the presence of class 1, 2, and 3 of integrons was analyzed by multiplex PCR.
Results: From 567 samples, 48 strains were identified as Salmonella enteritidis. Of all 48 strains, 45 strains (95%) had the intI gene, 7 strains (14.5%) had the intII gene, and 2 strains (4%) had the intIII gene.
Conclusion: In this study, high incidence of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons was detected. Screening integrons as a sign of obtaining and expansion of antibiotic resistance could be considered as an important mechanism to deal with antibiotic resistance in microorganisms.

Dr Behrooz Yahyaei, Dr Mahnaz Nouri, Dr Hamid Matmir,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2018)

Background and objectives: Anabolic steroids are routinely consumed by athletes. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of Boldenone (BOL) on testicular tissue and the healing effect of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) hydroalcoholic extract in addition to physical exercise.
Methods: In the present case–control study, 42 male wistar rats were purchased and divided into 3 experimental groups. 28 rats were subjected to BOL injection and subsequently divided into 4 groups. The control group, Sham and 8-week BOL group which was also divided into 4 subsequent groups of controlling BOL complications after 8 weeks, untreated control, jujube extract and jujube extract along with physical exercise.
Results: In the present study we found that jujube extract exerted healing effects on all groups pf treated rats in addition to the exercise training groups.
Conclusion: Jujube extract along with physical exercise may exert healing effects on testicular tissue after administration of anabolic BOL steroid.
Mahdi Tajbakhsh, Dr Neda Soleimani,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2018)

Background and objectives: Historically, herbs and plants have been used for their therapeutic properties in the form of flavors and preservatives. Recently, the application of medicinal herbs has increased considering their numerous benefits and minimum side-effects. Treatment of bacterial infections is currently a major challenge in the healthcare systems across the world. The present study aimed to assess the bacterial effects of Zingiber officinale, Aloysia citrodora and Artemisia dracunculus essential oils on the survival of standard Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.
Methods: In the present experimental study, we evaluated the effects of Tarragon (A. dracunculus), Ginger (Z. officinale) and Lemon Beebrush (A. citrodora) essential oils on 6 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus spp and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The well-diffusion method was applied to assess the antibacterial properties of the essential oils. Moreover, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) tests were used to determine the bacterial and inhibitory concentrations of the extracts.
Results: MIC and MBC results demonstrated that the ginger extract (0.125 mg/mL) had the most significant impact on Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Furthermore, tarragon extract (0.03125 mg/mL) had the most significant effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus spp, and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The antibacterial effects of these essential oils were not observed on other bacteria.
Conclusion: Medicinal plants have long been used for their therapeutic properties. According to the results, ginger and tarragon extracts are effective combinations for the treatment of the infections caused by Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.
Zeynab Haj Mohammadi, Shamsozoha Abolmaali, Azim Akbarzadeh,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2018)

Background and objectives: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of mortality among men worldwide, and the eighth cancer-related cause of death in Iran. Male sex hormones (androgens) are the main cause of prostate cancer cells. Triptorelin is considered a synthetic decapeptide analogue of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the treatment of prostate cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the methods to deal with the constraints in use of lipid nanoarchaeosomes. Due to their adjuvant feature and presence of ether links, archaeosomes are more stable in blood, compared to other lipid-based formulations. In the present study, the effects of nanoarchaeosomes containing triptorelin acetate on the cellular toxicity of the PC3 prostate cancer cell line were evaluated.
Methods: Halobacterium salinarum bacteria were cultured in HS medium, and their polar lipids of the membrane were removed applying the Blight&Dye technique in order to obtain nanoarchaeosome containing membrane polar lipids. In the next stage, nanoarchaeosomes were prepared by the hydration of polar lipids. In addition, cell viability was evaluated using the MTT assay on the PC3 cell line.
Results: In this research, mean diameter of the drug-containing nanoarchaeosomes was estimated at 263 nm using the ZetaSizer device. Moreover, drug loading efficiency of nanoarchaeosomes was estimated at 98%. Furthermore, the toxicity of the free and nanoarchaeosome drugs was assessed via the MTT assay, results of which were indicative of a mean of IC 50 0.22 µg/ml in this regard.
Conclusion: According to the results of the study, archaeosomes extracted from polar lipids were produced with high concentration and purity on the nanoscale. Considering the high stability, ease of production, level of drug loading, and toxic effect on cancer cells, nanoarchaeosomes can be used as a suitable technique for targeted drug delivery in future studies. 
Razieh Nazari-Vanani, Naghmeh Sattarahmady, Negar Azarpira, Hossein Heli,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2018)

Due to low cost, ease of administration, and lack need for trained personnel, the oral route is the most convenient and accessible way to design different medicines that could be simply consumed by patients. Regardless of the great benefits of this route, the main challenge in the bioavailability of oral medications is gastrointestinal instability. Nanotechnology is used to improve the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. The self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system is an ideal method for improving the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. This system is a sustainable combination of drugs, oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants. The combination of these components causes the nanoemulsion of oil in water with the size of droplets in the range of nm, thereby increasing the bioavailability and oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. This system is highly regarded for its benefits and the ability to improve the healing properties of oral medications.
Aniseh Jamshidi, Bahareh Shabanpour, Parastoo Pourashouri, Mojtaba Raeisi,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2018)

Background and Objectives: Production of fish protein hydrolysate is a method for converting the low-value economical underutilized fish species to value-added products. This study aimed to evaluate the different proportions of distilled water to the substrate on the functional characteristics, antioxidant and nutritional quality of fish protein hydrolysate of bigeye ilisha (Ilisha megaloptera) produced by enzymatic hydrolysis.
Materials and Methods: After defatting of minced fish, the hydrolysis process was carried out using three different 4:1, 5:1 and 6:1 distilled water to substrate proportions by using alcalase enzyme in three replications. The protein hydrolysate samples were analyzed for approximate composition (soluble protein, moisture, fat and ash), functional characteristics (solubility, foam capacity, and foam stability), antioxidant properties (DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power) and mineral composition.
Results: In this study, the ratio of distilled water to the substrate affected the protein hydrolysate properties and the highest amounts of hydrolysis degree and DPPH radical scavenging activity were observed in samples with 5:1 ratio. Fish protein hydrolysate obtained from 4:1 ratio had the highest amount of soluble protein, and no significant difference was observed in term of solubility with samples obtained by 5:1 ratio. Moreover, there were no significant differences in terms of lightness and foam capacity of samples obtained from 4:1 and 6:1 proportions.
Conclusion: According to the results of the study, using a 4:1 ratio of distilled water to substrate led to the production of fish protein hydrolysates from bigeye ilisha with higher functional properties and nutritional composition.
Maryam Kazemipoor, Roghayeh Hakimian, Laleh Akhoondzadeh,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2019)

Nano science and nanotechnology have revolutionized all aspects in the endodontic field. The aim of the present study was to describe the application of nanotechnology in endodontics by reviewing the literature.The application of nanomaterials, with a smaller size, for surface modification has reduced the incidence of failure in the rotary nickel-titanium files. Nanoparticles with the ability of rapid dispersion into the hard-to-reach spaces in the complex root canal system have a better antimicrobial effect. The incorporation of nanoparticles in the obturating materials promotes the sealing properties and antimicrobial efficacy. Nanoscaffolds in the pulp regeneration approaches, bioceramics as retrofilling, and repair materials, and Nanorobots and nanoterminators as new technologies for local anesthesia with fewer side effects are some examples in this regard.
Mohammad-Hassan Akhavan Karbassi, Fatemeh Owlia, Henghameh Zandi, Samira Hajimaghsoodi,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2019)

Background and objectives: The association of oral micro-organisms with infectious diseases such as bacterial endocarditis is a concern in dentistry. Bacterial endocarditis is a serious disease with a mortality rate of 40%. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of using chlorhexidine mouthwash on concentrations of some groups of bacteria in gingival sulcus, which is the main contact point of oral flora with circulating blood during scaling.
­­­ Methods: In this Randomized controlled clinical trial, participants were selected among referrals to the department of gingival diseases of Yazd dental school. Participants underwent determining plaque index and after scaling, sampling of the buccal and lingual gingival groove of mandibular central and lateral teeth was performed by paper with walking movement.
Results: participants were 53 patients who divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 27 patients (15 women and 12 men) ranging in age from 21 to 54 years mean of 35) who used 50 mL chlorhexidine mouthwash and Group B consisted of 26 patients (13 females and 13 males) ranging in age from 19 to 51 years old with a mean of 35.76 who used 50 mL normal saline before scaling. Study groups were not significantly different in terms of age, sex and plaque index. (P-values= 0.755, 0.348 and 0.708)
Mann Whitney-Wilcoxon test compared the counted values of Streptococcus viridance and Staphylococcus aureus in control group was significantly higher than the study group. (P-value = 0.000)
Conclusion: according to the results of our study chlorhexidine mouthwash prior to scaling teeth significantly reduced Streptococcus viridance and Staphylococcus aureus colony counts and could be recommended as a complementary agent for antibiotic prophylaxis in high risk patients prone to endocarditis, or as the only agent in moderate risk cardiac patients that antibiotic prophylaxis does not been used.
van Abdulqader Ahmed , Basima Sadiq Ahmed,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2019)

Background and objectives: Breast carcinoma is one of the most common malignant diseases among women worldwide. In Iraq there are noticeable elevation in incidence rates and prevalence of advanced stages of breast cancer. Cobalamin (vitamin B12) is essential micronutrient involved in one carbon metabolism and DNA methylation, which affects cancer. All of these may be change in breast cancer. The present work was designed to estimate and compare serum vitamin B12 among female breast cancer patients (60 ones) and healthy control subjects (60 ones) in Sulaimania city.
Methods: This is a case-control study conducted on sixty cases of newly diagnosed women with breast cancer, the control group include sixty healthy women. Serum vitamin B12 levels were estimated by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (Elecsys) method. Data was analyzed using the software SPSS (Ver. 22) including frequency and percentage for categorical variables. Pearson chi-square test was used for analysis of all categorical variables.
Results: In this study we found that serum vitamin B12 levels were significantly (p=0.01) lower in breast cancer patients as compared to healthy control subject. There was no association between serum vitamin B12 levels with estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptor.
Conclusion: Given the results, it can be concluded that serum vitamin B12 is consistently lower among breast cancer patients. There was no association between serum vitamin B12 levels and hormones receptors status, indicating clinical implications for the interpretation of serum vitamin B12 levels. Therefore, it should be taken into consideration by physicians and cancer specialists.
Mina Rahmati, Naser Mobarra, Hossein Ghannadan,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (7-2019)

Background and objectives: Ischemic stroke (IS) is a life-threatening disease which lacks reliable prognostic and/or diagnostic biomarkers. In the present study, we examined the serum oxidative stress balance (OSB) and evaluated its diagnostic and prognostic value for IS.
Methods: Sera from 52 IS patients and 52 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers were obtained. All patients were subjected to the collection of samples at the time of admission, 24 and 48 hours later, at the time of discharge and three months later. OSB levels were assessed by spectrophotometry. Statistical analyses for diagnostic accuracy of quantitative measures were performed.
Results: We showed that OSB levels were elevated at the time of admission in comparison to normal subjects. ROC curve analysis expressed that OSB could be an acceptable diagnostic marker to discriminate IS patients from normal subjects (AUC = 0.7337; P<0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that OSB had no prognostic value (P=0.8584).
Conclusion: Oxidative stress balance could be introduced as a suggested biomarker to segregate IS patients from normal subjects.
Faezeh Ajam, Mehrdad Aghaei, Saeed Mohammadi, Mohsen Saeedi, Nasser Behnampour, Ali Memarian,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (7-2019)

Study objectives: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common chronic and systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by inflammation and the destruction of the joints. It is well known that CD4+ T cells play a major role in the pathogenesis of RA. Expanded subpopulations of CD4+ T cells have been reported in RA patients. Here, we investigated the expression of PD-1 on subsets of CD4+ T cells (CD4+CD28- and CD4+CD28+ T cells) in the peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) of patients with RA.
Methods: A total of 42 RA patients, including 10 newly diagnosed (ND) and 32 relapsed (RL) cases and also 20 healthy controls were enrolled. Phenotypic characterization subsets of CD4+ T cells were evaluated by flow cytometry, using fluorescence conjugated specific human monoclonal antibodies.
Results: The frequency of CD4+CD28+ T cells was significantly increased in SF versus PB in ND and RL patients. In contrast, the percentage of CD4+CD28- T cells was elevated in PB of ND and RL patients comparison to SF. Expression of PD-1 on CD4+CD28+ and CD4+CD28- T cells in PB of ND and RL patients was significantly higher than the healthy controls. Furthermore, PD-1 expression on CD4+CD28+ and CD4+CD28- T cells in SF versus PB of RL patients were significant increased.
Conclusion: These data suggest that CD4+ T cells subsets in RA patients were resistance to PD-1 mediated effects and PD-1 has insufficient ability to suppression of CD4+T cells.
Ayyoob Khosravi, Fariba Kokabi, Ramezan Behzadi, Jahanbakhsh Asadi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2019)

Background and objectives: Modeling cancer in vivo is a very important tool to investigate cancer pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms involved in cancer progression. Laboratory mice are the most common animal used for rebuilding human cancer in vivo. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the main reason of failure in cancer therapy because of tumor relapse and metastasis. Isolation of cancer stem cells helps us to study their function and behavior. In the current study we separate cancer stem-like cells using sphere formation assay then investigate their tumorigenicity in xenograft tumor model.
Methods: YM1 cancer cells were cultured in serum-free media (SFM) in low adherent culture dishes for enrichment of cancer stem cells. The resulting spheres containing cancer stem-like cells were dissociated into single cells and were injected into the dorsal flank of B6 nude mice.
Results: A few days after injection, subcutaneous tumors formed. The growth curves of the resulting tumors were plotted using their weekly recorded lengths. The tumorschr('39') volume and weight were measured. The size of resulting tumors was appropriate to the number of cells injected. Pathological analysis confirmed esophageal origin of the resulting tumors.
Conclusion: Using laboratory mice models is a practical modeling system that provides us investigation of human tumors pathogenesis in vivo.

Javad Sayyahi, Hayedeh Mobaiyen, Behboud Jafari, Abolfazl Jafari-Sales,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2019)

Background and objectives: As much as people become aware of the dangerous side effects of synthetic antibiotics, the demand for natural alternatives to these drugs increases. Natural ingredients, lower risk of complications and even have beneficial side effects. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of herbs Reum ribes L and hyssop Hyssopus officinalis is on some pathogenic bacteria.
Methods: After collecting and confirming the scientific name, the methanolic extract of R. ribes L. and  H. officinalis  plants was prepared and the antimicrobial effects of the extracts by agar well diffusion and disk diffusion , as well as the determination of The minimum bactericidal concentration and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC / MBC)  were dilution test on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Results: The highest growth inhibitory zone in S. aureus, B. cereus, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli at concentrations of 400 mg / ml, respectively, in the disc method of 13.21, 13.41, 11.2 and10.74 mm and the well method, respectively 13.64, 13.11, 10.67 mm, and 9.38 mm for the R. ribes L extract, and the disc method of 11.74, 10.2, 10.71, and 9.1 mm, and the well method of 12.41, 11.6, 10.2, and 9.9 respectively. 4.3 mm was observed for H. officinalis extract. The results of MBC / MIC showed that the extract of medicinal plants had the highest susceptibility to B. cereus bacteria and the least susceptibility to E. coli.
Conclusion: R. ribes L. and  H. officinalis  plants have significant inhibitory effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria in vitro. Therefore, it can be expected that these extracts can be used for the treatment of bacterial infections and are a good alternative to the usual chemical treatments for the treatment of infections.

Samira Mahmoudi, Rozita Nasiri, Abolfazl Jafari Sales,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2019)

Background and objectives: Microbial resistance to antibiotics is one of the most common problems in the health care system. Therefore, many efforts have been performed to find new compounds as antimicrobial compounds. This study carried out to investigate the in-vitro antibacterial effect of methanolic extract of peppermint on standard Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain.
Material and Methods: In this experimental laboratory study, after collecting and performing pharmacognosy evaluations, methanolic extract of the peppermint plant was prepared and its antimicrobial effects on several bacteria were determined at concentrations of 20 to 400 mg/ml using the agar well diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)  methods. The test was repeated five times for each bacterium and the collected data were analyzed using SPSS software.
Results: It was revealed that the methanolic extract of peppermint had antimicrobial effects against standard Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The highest effect was observed in S. aureus and the least in P. aeruginosa.  MIC and MBC of methanol extract on S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa were 6.5-15.5, 15.5-25, 50-100, and 100-200 mg/ml, respectively.
Conclusion: The results of this study reveal that peppermint can be considered as an antibacterial medicinal herb and that if the concentration of the extract is higher, its antibacterial properties will also increase. Thus, it can be used as an alternative to the usual chemical drugs in the treatment of infections after evaluating their effects in vitro.
Faegheh Jafari Amoli, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani, Parvin Farzanegi Arkhazloo,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2019)

Background and objectives: It has been reported that deep-fried oils (DFOs) used in the preparation of fast foods can affect the immune system. On the other hand, regular physical activity and proper nutrition, in addition to affecting physical function, have a tremendous impact on the immune system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of aerobic training (T) and octopamine (O) consumption in the heart tissue of rats fed DFO.
Methods: In this experimental study, 25 male Wistar rats with mean age of 20 weeks old and weighing 300- 350 were purchased and divided into 5 groups of 5 rats, including: 1) control, 2) DFO, 3) DFO+T, 4) DFO+O and 5) DFO+T+O. During four weeks, groups 2- 5 received DFO by gavage; groups 3- 5 ran on treadmill (with speed of 50% Vo2max in the first week which reached 65% Vo2max in the last week) five sessions per week and 20 minutes per session and groups 4-5 received 81 μmol/kg octopamine supplement peritoneally for 5 days per week. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene expression were measured in heart tissue.
Results: DFO significantly increased NF-κB (P=0.005) and TNF-α (P=0.001) gene expression levels; T significantly on decreased NF-κB (P=0.01) and TNF-α (P=0.007) gene expression levels; O consumption significantly decreased NF-κB (P=0.001) and TNF-α (P=0.001) gene expression levels; however, the interactive effects of T and O consumption on NF-κB (P=0.57) and TNF-α (P=0.20) gene expression levels was not significant.
Conclusion: It seems that T and O consumption alone have anti-inflammatory effects on the heart tissue of rats fed DFO, however T and O do not have anti-inflammatory interactive effects.
Nafiseh Kaviani, Yaghoub Yazdani, Hadi Bazzazi,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2019)

Background and objectives: Vitamin D receptor (VDR) has been identified as a susceptibility gene for several autoimmune diseases. This study was designed to investigate the association of VDR gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Methods: A case-control study was performed on 130 RA patients and 128 healthy subjects in the north-east of Iran using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) technique.  
Results: Our findings suggested a significant association of T allele (p=0.01) of TaqI (rs731236), and f allele (p=0.01) of FokI (rs10735810) genetic variants of the VDR gene with RA susceptibility. These significant associations were also found in the T/T genotype of TaqI (p=0.009), and F/f genotype of FokI (P=0.014). The f-T haplotype was more significantly detected in-patients than in healthy controls (p=0.007).
Conclusion: The RA group showed an increase in the f allele and heterozygous F/f genotype and also in the T allele and homozygous T/T and heterozygous T/t genotypes as compared to the control group. Our results demonstrated that polymorphisms of TaqI and FokI in the VDR gene might be involved in the development of RA in an Iranian population.
Abolfazl Jafari-Sales, Homeira Khaneshpour, Mehrdad Pashazadeh, Rozita Nasiri,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (3-2020)

On December 31, 2019, the Wuhan-China Health Commission reported a case of pneumonia in the city. The first symptoms began in mid-December 2019. Clinically isolated specimens identified the coronavirus as the cause of the disease. It was first shown as 2019-nCoV, and as the number of victims of the coronavirus crossed the border of thousands of people, the World Health Organization chose the official name COVID-19 for its illness. Although it appears to be of animal origin, it is rapidly transmitting from person to person around the world. The World Health Organization released a statement calling the outbreak of the new Corona virus a Public Health Emergency Situations that poses a threat to the whole world, not just China. In this study highlights how the virus is transmitted, the clinical signs, the laboratory characteristics, the pathogenicity of the virus, Vaccines, and the prevention and control of the spread of the virus.

Fatemeh Monirian, Reyhane Abedi, Negar Balmeh, Samira Mahmoudi, Fereshteh Mirzaei Poor,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (10-2020)

Background and objective: Some common problems in the health care system are Microbial resistance to antibiotics, the side effects of food additives, and preservatives. Considering the antibiotic resistance of microorganisms and the need to identify new compounds, the present study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial effects of Artemisia extracts.
Material And Method The study was performed in two stages including extraction and determination of antibacterial properties of aqueous, ethanolic, methanolic, acetone/ethanolic, and hydroethanolic extracts of Artemisia on standard Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, and oral bacteria sample. The well diffusion method was performed to evaluate the concentration that had an inhibitory and bactericidal effect.
Result: Aqueous extract had an effect on the oral bacteria sample (8 mm), the methanolic extract had an effect on S. pyogenes and oral bacteria sample (15 mm) and finally acetone/ethanolic extracts had antimicrobial properties against S. pyogenes (16 mm). The concentration used for all five extracts was 50 mg/ml and showed an inhibition effect on the growth of S. pyogenes standard strain and oral bacteria sample. The less serial dilutions of extracts were tested but no antibacterial effects were seen. So, 50 mg/ml was the minimum concentration that had an inhibitory and bactericidal effect.
Conclusion: It can be inferred that aqueous, methanolic, and acetone/ethanolic extracts of Artemisia had the highest inhibitory effect on S. pyogenes and the oral bacteria sample. Consequently, by applying different extraction methods and by utilizing different solvents, it may be possible to more efficiently obtain biomaterials with antimicrobial properties from this plant.

Behboud Jafari, Abolfazl Jafari-Sales, ‪homeira Khaneshpour‬‏, Salar Fatemi, Mehrdad Pashazadeh, Ali Esmail Al-Snafi, Afsoon Shariat,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (10-2020)

Background and objective: In recent years, with the increase in resistance due to the indiscriminate use of synthetic antibiotics, it seems necessary to find alternative drugs that have both antibacterial properties and have the least side effects for humans. The purpose of this study is to review the antibacterial properties of some medicinal plants.
Material And Method In this review study, the content related to the antibacterial properties of Thymus vulgaris, Mentha pulegium, Crocus sativus, and Salvia officinalis were studied within Magiran, SID, PubMed, MEDLINE, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Scopus databases from 1981 to 2019. Previously published specialized articles and systematic meta-analysis were used as a supplementary source for identifying relevant articles.  Finally, data from 46 articles were pooled and analyzed.
Result: Extracts and essential oils of Thymus vulgaris, Mentha pulegium, Crocus sativus, and Salvia officinalis had a good antibacterial properties against a variety of pathogenic bacteria and their infections.
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the studied plants can be considered as a suitable option for treating infections caused by pathogenic bacteria and helping to Return the sensitivity of antibiotics in these bacteria, and this requires more comprehensive research on medicinal plants.

Samaneh Rafiei, Ali Asghar Ravasi, Abbas Ali Gaeini,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2021)

Background and Objective: Trimethyltin (TMT) is an organotin neurotoxin which causes cognitive disorders by the induction of selective damage in hippocampus. The present study evaluates the effect of 8-week swimming exercise (EX) and Gallic acid (GA) for working and avoidance memory, hippocampal oxidative stress indices and brain neurotrophic factor expression (BDNF) in rats after TMT intoxication.
Material and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 Wistar mature male rats were randomly put in 5 groups of control, TMT+NS, TMT+GA200, TMT+EX, TMT+GA200+EX. 24 hours after TMT intoxication (8mg/kg), 8 weeks of swimming exercise (3 sessions per week), and treatment with GA (200mg/kg) were done. Then, the evaluation of working and passive avoidance memory was performed respectively by the use of Y maze and shuttle box. Hippocampal level of catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and BDNF were done by ELISA method, and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was performed by thiobarbituric acid (MDA). Statistical differences between groups were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test.
Results: The significant decrease in the percentage of alteration behaviors, latency time to the dark room, along with BDNF, CAT, TAC and increase of MDA were seen in TMT+NS group compared to control group (p<0.01). Swimming exercise in the interaction with GA ameliorates working and avoidance memory by increasing BDNF, CAT, TAC, and decrease of MDA compared to TMT+NS group (p<0.05).
Conclusion: It seems that swimming exercise and GA administration improves cognitive symptoms following TMT intoxication simultaneously by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing BDNF expression.

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